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Villwocks of Berrien

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The Villwock Families of Berrien County, Michigan

Maralyn D. Tolman and Richard L. Tolman, Ph. D.

Acknowledgement: The authors wish to thank Steve Miller of Glenview, IL for reading and commenting on the manuscript and for directing the authors to some Volhynian and Pomeranian archives/sources now available online.

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     In the 1910 U. S. census there were over 400 Villwocks in Berrien County, Michigan, 16 of which were born in German-speaking Prussia1 (1840-1871). These Villwock families in Berrien County can be presumed to be related. This essay attempts to investigate this contention and sort out available data about them and their origins. The genealogy outlined below identifies nearly all of these Berrien County Villwocks as Pomeranian immigrants with their sons and grandsons.

     A word now about the historical context: what is present-day Germany was in the 1840’s to 1871 a collection of independent city-states and provinces. A large number of these provinces were a part of the Prussian confederation of 1815 called ‘Prussia’ (this included Westphalia, Brandenburg, Pomerania and East and West Prussia, but did not include the independent provinces Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Hannover, Bavaria, Saxony and the Thuringian States).2 Chancellor Otto von Bismarck of Prussia began the unification of Germany in the mid-1860’s.

     Germany became a nation as of January 18, 1871 in Versailles after the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian war. This unified the German-speaking provinces, kingdoms, and free cities that were under the control of Prussia with the independent provinces. This union became the second German Reich, which translates into “empire” or “realm”. This unification happened primarily because of the efforts of Otto von Bismarck, the Prime Minister of Prussia and the most important statesman of the 19th century in both Prussia and Germany. Berlin became the capital. From 1871-1918, Germany was an Imperial Monarchy. William I, from 1871-1888, was both the German emperor and the King of Prussia. There were political problems because of the conservative base and laws of Prussia, and the increasingly liberal trend in Germany. In 1888, William II replaced William I, and forced Bismarck, who had pushed for rapid social and economic modernization, to resign. Germany grew in territory and economic strength. When World War 1 ended in 1918, Germany’s emperor was forced to step down, and the German Empire was succeeded by the democratic Weimar Republic.

     By 1890 Germany had obtained its pre-WWI constitution although there were still several German-speaking regions (in Russia and Czechoslovakia) that were not part of Germany. The province of Pomerania (auf deutsch: Pommern), part of Germany, was adjacent to partitions by Russia (made by Catherine the Great, the last in 1795)—these areas would become part of Poland decades later.3 Regardless their origin these immigrants, whether from Prussia, Poland, South Russia, or Germany, we can say they are German because of the language they spoke (from U. S. Census data).

Figure 1. (a) Map4 of the modern (post WW2) Baltic countries (above), the flag showing the location of Rummelsburg, Pomerania (Poland) and (b) a map5 of Pomerania/Pommern (below) with Kreis Rummelsburg (Kreis = county) toward the left side in Regierungsbezirk Köslin (grey).

     The authors propose that most of these Berrien County Villwocks are descended from three Villwocks, who all emigrated about the same time (1888-1892) from Rummelsburg, Pomerania (Pommern). But WHERE in the county of Rummelsburg? There are a few clues…(1) the death certificate of Adelina (Hafer) Benke, dau of Henriette (Villwock) Hafer, states she was born at ‘Charlottental’ (spelled phonetically on the certificate), see Note 207, and (2) Augusta (Villwock) Kayser told her children that her mother always said she was from ‘Louisenhof’.6 Both of these place names appear in the index of the Alt Kolziglow parish (Figure 2, right edge of map).7

Figure 2. Kreis Rummelsburg in Pomerania (Pommern).8 Width of the county is about 25 miles. The Polish name for Rummelsburg is Miastko.

     Below is detailed the genealogy of three male Villwocks and their families as well as two female Villwocks, all immigrants and residents of Berrien County, Michigan: (no. 1) Heinrich Villwock (chr. Christian Heinrich Albert Villwock, b. 23 Dec 1844 at Sophienthal, Kr. Rummelsburg) and a cousin? (no. 2) Hermann Karl Wilhelm Villwock, 28 Dec 1844 at Seehof, Kr. Rummelsburg). A third Villwock, (no. 3) August Villwock (b. 27 Feb 1848 at Wolschewitz, Kr. Rummelsburg), was a brother of Herman.9,10 Herman, his wife Johanna and son Herman Jr. immigrated11 through the port of Baltimore; they listed their destination as Michigan—brother August Villwock had already emigrated there 1888. Two other Villwock women immigrated to Berrien County, Michigan in 1892, (no. 4) Amelia (Villwock) Maikowski12 (chr. Emilie Charlotte Louise, b. 12 Mar 1853 at Moddrow, Kr. Bütow) and (no. 5) Henriette Fredericka Wilhelmina (Villwock) Hafer13 (b. 23 Nov 1841 in Seehof, Kr. Rummelsburg) also emigrated in 1892 from Pomerania. They were sisters, born to Karl and Friederike (Schaar) Villwock. The five Villwocks then are all Pomeranian immigrants but come from three different sets of parents that may or may not be closely related. As we discovered in the course of this work, four of the five couples were Volhynian (Ukrainian) colonists before moving to Michigan.

     There are two major groups of Villwocks in Pomerania—only two, because of the paucity of records from the time period.14 One is in the Rummelsburg area (very few records and a narrow range of dates) and the other is in the Neustettin area (more records and some earlier church records). All of the Berrien County Villwock immigrants appear to be from the Rummelsburg group.

     Because of the 1863 rebellion in Poland, and the freeing of the serfs in Russia in 1861, there was a large migration of Prussians (Germans) to an area called Volhynia. This province of Russia included parts of Poland, Belarus, and northwestern Ukraine.15,16 With the loss of their cheap labor (serfs), the nobles in Volhynia needed workers for their farms, and they collectively extended invitations to immigrants, who were permitted to lease land at favorable rates. All of the male Villwocks immigrated to Volhynia; they went to the central Rowno area, now part of Western Ukraine.

Figure 3. Russian Province of Volhynia (mostly western Ukraine, but included parts of Poland and Belarus).17 There is a nice detailed topo of the Rowno area online at http://lazarus.elte.hu/hun/digkonyv/topo/200e/44-51.jpg.

GENEALOGICAL SUMMARY

[Note: Spelling is a problem here: in old German records ‘i / j’ and ‘y’ are interchangeable as are ‘f’ and ‘v’.] Hereafter Pomerania is Pommern and Prussia is Preuβen.

Family 1

Generation 1

    1. Christian Heinrich Albert (Heinrich/Henry) Villwock18(no. 1) was born 23 Dec 184419 at Louisenhof, Sophienthal, Kreis Rummelsburg,20,21,22 Pommern (Preuβen) the son of Christian and Wilhelmina (Kloss) Villwock. Today this is part of Poland. The city of Rummelsburg, in the Kreis by that name, is called Miastko (directly west of Danzig). Heinrich died23 25 Dec 1926 at Sodus, Berrien, Michigan and was buried24 at Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien County.

    Heinrich served in the Prussian Army under Otto von Bismarck.25 When he was 24 years he went to Volhynia, Russia to farm and married soon thereafter (cf Figure 4). He immigrated first to the U.S. in 1891.26 He moved his family to Canada in 1893, and then to Michigan in 190227 where he became a fruit farmer in Berrien County. He married28 (1) 30 Sep 1870 In Zhitomir, Volhynia Henriette (Hattie) Skalѐ of Colonie Beresalup, Kreis Lutzk, Volhynia. She was born 5 Aug 1848 in Beresalup, Lutzk/Luck, Volhynia the dau of Johann and Kristina29 Skalѐ and died 10 Aug 1895 at Leduc (Friedrichsheim), Alberta, Canada.

    Figure 4. Publication of the banns in Zhitomir Parish, Volhynia.30

    After emigrating from Germany/Russia in 1891, Heinrich may have spent some time in Michigan (visiting Villwock relatives, perhaps Amelia (Villwock) Maikowski31 and her family), but then travelled to Portland to visit his two oldest girls who were working in Portland; son Albert was born to Hattie while in Portland. Heinrich and his family then homesteaded32 in Alberta Canada (filed Apr 1894) at Friedrichsheim (Section 30, Township 48, Range 24, Meridian 4); Heinrich was granted the patent in Mar 1899.33 Daughter Amelia was born in Alberta at the end of 1893.

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NOTE: Investigation of at-DNA matches for the author MDT (autosomal DNA at Ancestry) identified a group of cousins34 who have in common descendency from the Skalѐ family. Their common ancestor is likely Gottlieb Skalѐ (born abt 1805) of Preuβen. Gottlieb (b. 1805) and Louise Hänsel had an illegitimate son35 Gottlieb Ferdinand Hänsel(Skalѐ), born 23 Mar 1827 at Neuhausen, Brandenburg, Preuβen; he married 8 Oct 1863 at Zhitomir Parish, Volhynia (Ukraine) Anna Eleonore Schalin;36 they immigrated to Berrien County, Michigan with a large family.37 Gottfried and Anna raised their family in German-speaking Volhynia. The aforementioned Gottlieb Skalѐ (b.1805) might have had another son Johann, Henriette Skalѐ’s father.

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    After Hattie’s death he married38 (2) abt fall 1895 at Canada Paulena Jaster (Yaster) daughter of William and Minnie (Swartz) Yaster39 as her second husband. She was born 31 Oct 1860 at Russia and died40,41 29 Sep 1942 at Sodus, Berrien, Michigan; buried42 at Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien County. She had immigrated to Canada in 189443 and had been previously married44 (1) 17 Sep 1885 at Zhitomir, Wolhynia to Wilhelm Lange born 1815 at Preuβen and died45 30 Dec 1892 (age 77) at Wolnjanka, Kr. Lutzk, Volhynia. This was a May-December relationship: she was 25, he was 60. They had a probable46 dau Amelia, born Canada.

    Henry and Henrietta (Skalѐ) Villwock had eleven children.47

     2.      i.   JOHANNA BERTE VILLWOCK was born48 6 Aug 1871 at Lessapol, Zhitomir Parish, Volhynia, and died49 8 Aug 1871 at Lessapol.

     3.      ii.   JOHANNA FRIEDERIKE (Annie) VILLWOCK was born50 9 Jul 1872 at Marzelindorf, Zhitomir Parish, Volhynia and died 15 Apr 1935 at Portland, Multnomah, Oregon. She married 23 Jan 1895 at Multnomah County, Oregon Jacob R. (Jake) Kayser son of Friedrich and Magdalena (Kreis) Kayser. He was born 13 Oct 1869 at Seimanthal, Bessarabia, Russia and died 9 Apr 1925 at Seattle, King, Washington. Five children.

     4.    iii.   AUGUSTA OTTILIE/OPHELIA (Gussie) VILLWOCK was born51 3 Sep 1874 at Marzelindorf, Zhitomir Parish, Volhynia, and died 6 Feb 1962 at Portland, Multnomah, Oregon. She married 1894 at Portland, Multnomah, Oregon Ludwig Kayser son of Friedrich and Magdalena (Kreis) Kayser. Four daughters. He was born 29 Jul 1871 at Alexanderhilf, Bessarabia, Russia and died52,53 17 Feb 1945 at Portland, Multnomah, Oregon.

     5.      iv.   PAULINE (Lena) VILLWOCK was born54 1 Sep 1876 at Lessapol, Kreis Rowno, Volhynia and died55 8 Sep 1968 at Alameda County, California. She married56 (later divorced57) 11 May 1903 at Spokane County, Washington Hugo Julius Kleeman son of Otto Karl and Anna Louise (Gehlich) Kleeman. He was born58 14 Jan 1878 at Oakland, Alameda, California and died 3 Jan 1967 at Los Altos, Santa Clara, California; buried59,60 at River View Cemetery, Portland, Multnomah, Oregon.

     6.      v.   HULDA (Hilda) ERNESTINE VILLWOCK was born61 22 Jan 1879 at Piaskow, Kreis Rowno, Volhynia and died62 1 Jan 1955 at Clackamas County, Oregon and is buried63 at Lincoln Memorial Park, Portland, Multnomah, Oregon. She married64 25 Aug 1910 at Portland, Multnomah, Oregon Algern Harry (Al) Tingley son of Allen Griffith and Jane Matilda (Cornell) Tingley. He was born 8 Aug 1879 at Bratten, Nemaha, Nebraska and died 3 Feb 1934 at Ojai, Ventura, California; buried65 at Lincoln Memorial Park, Portland, Multnomah, Oregon.

     7      vi.   EMILIE HENRIETTE (AMELIA) VILLWOCK was born 22 Apr 1880 and chr 15 Apr 188066 at Kostopol, Kreis Rowno, Volhynia and died 2 Jan 1930 at Portland, Multnomah, Oregon. According to the 1901 Canadian Census67 she was born 22 Apr 1879 in Germany; in the 1920 U. S. Census of Vancouver, Clark, Washington she was born in 1881.68 She married abt 1901 at Canada August William Tetzlaff, son of Harry and Louise Tetzlaff. She attended her father’s funeral (see Figure 7). Dau Mabel Adams named parents August Tetzlaff and Amelia Villwock (Goff/Adams marriage: Clark County, Washington Marriage Records, 1941). August was born 26 Dec 1874 at Germany and died 9 Jul 1957 at Portland, Multnomah, Oregon. Both are buried69 at Historic Columbian Cemetery, Portland, Multnomah, Oregon.

     8.     vii.   WILLIAM CARL VILLWOCKwas born 22 Nov 1882 at Germany and died70 23 Apr 1964 at Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan. He married71 1 Jul 1908 (1) Hattie Biastock dau of Fred and Bertha (Hafer) Biastock; she was born 5 Sep 1890 and died 30 Oct 1938; both are buried72 at Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien County. Two children, Viola and Leona.73,74

     William married (2) Maude Tibbitts Pering; daughter of William H. Pering and Mary E. Goodall.75,76 She was born 29 Apr 1887 in Chicago, Illinois and died 30 Sep 1983 in St. Joseph, Mi.; buried77 in Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien County. She had a prior marriage to Charles P. Tibbits.

     9.    viii.   MATHILDE LOUISE (Tillie) VILLWOCK was born 10 Apr 1885 at Germany and died78 17 Feb 1980 at Clackamas County, Oregon. She married79 29 Jun 1905 Herman William Biastock son of Fred and Bertha (Hafer) Biastock. He was born80 21 Dec 1882 at Lessapol, Volhynia and died81 21 May 1949 at Portland, Multnomah, Oregon.82 Three children.

     10.     ix.   HANNA VILLWOCK was born abt 1888.83 She may have married abt 1908 George Taslov/Tazloff.84,85 George was born 1879 at Norway; they had at least five children.

     11.      x.   ALBERT VILLWOCK was born 11 Mar 1892 at Portland, Multnomah, Oregon and died 28 Oct 1964 at Cook County, Illinois; buried86 at North Shore Memory Gardens, Coloma, Berrien, Michigan. He married Emily Wetter, daughter of Gottlieb and Anna Louise (Bayer) Wetter.87 She was born 15 Sep 1893 at Poland and died 30 Dec 1968 at Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan. At least one son Henry (married Sandra Jean Smith).88

     12.     xi.   LANA VILLWOCK was born 1894 at Leduc (Friedrichsheim), Alberta, Canada and died89 11 Mar 1898 at Alberta, Canada.

    Wilhelm and Paulina (Yaster) Lang had one daughter that lived (six90 altogether, five born in Volhynia):

     13.      i.   EMILIA/AMELIA LANG was born 24 Dec 189291 at Alberta, Canada and died92 1 Aug 1959 at St. Joseph, Berrien, Michigan; buried93 at Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien County.94 She married95 8 May 1915 at Chicago, IL. Frank Somogi, son of Frank and Augusta Somogi.96 He was born 14 Mar 189497 in the Austro-Hungarian Empire and died98 5 Mar 1962 in Benton Harbor, Michigan, buried next to his wife. Amelia listed her name as ‘Amelia Villwock’ when she worked as a domestic in 1910.99 Her mother was living with her in the 1940 census.100 Two children.

       

Figure 3.101 (a) Henry Villwock (1) in 1915 and (b) Hilda Villwock Tingley (6, left) and Lena Villwock Kleeman (5, right) at the Panama Pacific International Exhibition in San Francisco (1915).

    Henry and Paulena (Yaster) Villwock had seven children.102

     14.      i.   HERMAN VILLWOCK was born103 8 Jan 1896 at Leduc (Friedrichsheim), Alberta, Canada and died104 11 Jan 1956 in San Joaquin County, California.105 Not married. He was a WWI veteran (Company D, 12th machine gun battalion).106

     15.      ii.   MARTHA VILLWOCK was born 20 Sep 1898 at Leduc (Friedrichsheim), Alberta, Canada and died107 4 Oct 1973 at Kalamazoo, MI.; buried108 at Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien County. She never married.109

     16.    iii.   JULIUS VILLWOCK was born 23 Sep 1900 at Leduc (Friedrichsheim), Alberta, Canada and died110 of pneumonia 14 Nov 1922 at Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan; buried111 at Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien County. He never married.

     17.      iv.   HAROLD VILLWOCK was born 2 Aug 1902 at Berrien County, Michigan and died112 17 Nov 1958 at St. Joseph, Berrien, Michigan; buried113 at Crystal Springs, Benton Harbor, Berrien County. He married 4 Sep 1930 Kathryn Helen Carmichael dau of Lloyd and Beulah (Collins) Carmichael. She was born 24 Feb 1905 and died 14 Jul 1969; buried114 at Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien County.115

     18.      v.   SARAH VILLWOCK was born 16 May 1905 at Benton Harbor, Michigan116 and died 7 Jul 1968 in Benton Harbor and was buried117 at Riverview Cemetery, St. Joseph, Berrien, Michigan next to her husband. She married118 3 Jul 1926 at Wayne County, Michigan George G. Tillman son of Edward and Catherine (Meier) Tillman.

     19.      vi.   LYDIA VILLWOCK (twin) was born 1 Apr 1907 at Michigan and died 26 Oct 1969 in Berrien County, MI, and is buried119 at Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan. She married120 (1) 19 Feb 1927 (div) at St. Joseph, Berrien, Michigan Emil A. Bischoff son of Emil and Minnie (Firchoff) Bischoff. He was born 1903 and died/buried121 1952. She married (2) 13 Sep 1941 at Coloma, Berrien, Michigan Everett Linderman. He was born 17 Mar 1876 and died 6 Jun 1959 in Michigan;122 buried123 at Crystal Springs Cemetery, Berrien, Michigan. She married a third time (3) abt 1960 to Dan Gridley.124,125

     20.    vii.   BERTHA VILLWOCK (twin) was born 2 Apr 1907 at Michigan and died126 3 Apr 1907 at Sodus Twp, Berrien, Michigan.

 

Figures 4 and 5. (Left) Hilda (Villwock) Tingley (6), Augusta (Villwock) Kayser (4), and Paulena (Villwock) Kleeman (5) (abt 1940) and (Right) Ludwig and Augusta (Villwock) Kayser (4) in Portland (1935).

Figure 6. Heinrich and Henrietta (Skalѐ) Villwock and nine children abt 1894. Back row L to R: Pauline, William, Hulda, Johanna, Augusta, Mathilda; Front row L to R.: Heinrich, Albert (sitting), Henrietta, Lana (on lap), Hanna.127

     

Figure 8. at left: Map of Berrien County Michigan with Niles at lower right and Sodus at center southwest of Benton Harbor.

    at right: Villwock Chili Sauce (obtained from Augusta Villwock Kayser 4 and passed down through generations). This is REALLY good stuff on meatloaf and pot-roast—far superior to anything that can be purchased commercially. Odds are very good that this is a Volhynian/Pomeranian recipe from Hattie Skalѐ or even earlier.

Family 2

Generation 1

    1. Hermann Karl Wilhelm (Herman) Villwock  (no. 2) was born 28 Dec 1844 at Seehof, Kreis Rummelsburg, Pommern (Preuβen) son of Johann and Maria (Stiewe) Villwock128 and died 17 Aug 1912 at Berrien County, Michigan when he was struck by lightning when he and a friend sought shelter in a barn;129 buried130 at Union Cemetery, Berrien Center, Berrien County. He married abt 1870 Johanna/Hannah Ernstina Friederike Friedrich. She was born131 12 Sep 1846 in Alt Kolziglow, Kreis Rummelburg, Pommern, Preußen. She died 31 Jan 1926 at Berrien County, Michigan; buried132 at Union Cemetery, Berrien Center, Berrien County. They arrived in New York on the Karlsruhe and immigrated through Castle Garden133 6 May 1891.

    Herman and Johanna (Friedrich) Villwock had at least ten children, seven alive in 1900;134 20th century census records indicate mostly Russian birth.

     2.      i.   ALBERT AUGUST VILLWOCK was born 27 Jan 1871 at Elisabetin, Rozyszcze/Rowno Parish, Volhynia, (Ukraine)and died135 14 Jun 1901 at Berrien County, Michigan; buried136 at Union Cemetery, Berrien, Berrien County. Never married.137

     3.    ii.   HERMAN CARL VILLWOCK was born138 10 Apr 1873 at Elisabetin, Rozyszcze/Rowno Parish, Volhynia (Ukraine), christened 29 Apr 1873 and died 1 May 1934 at Niles, Berrien, Michigan; buried139 at Union Cemetery, Berrien, Berrien County. He married140 17 Jan 1904 at Baroda, Berrien, Michigan Augusta Reimer Fetke dau of Charles and Amelia Reimer (Herman was her 2nd husband; they divorced before 1915).141,142 Augusta was born 2 Sep 1868 and died 23 Nov 1957; buried143 at Spring Run Cemetery, Scottdale, Berrien County. She married (1) 11 Oct 1889 at St. Joseph, Berrien, Michigan Albert Fetke and a 3rd time (3) 22 Feb 1915 at St. Joseph, Berrien County Gustav Geschke. At least two children with 1st husband Albert (he died 1903).

     4.    iii.   AUGUST FRIEDRICH VILLWOCK was born 20 May 1875144,145 at Elisabetin, Rozyszcze/Rowno Parish, Volhynia (Ukraine) and died 14 Apr 1960; buried146 at Silverbrook Cemetery, Niles, Berrien County. He married147 3 Jun 1911 at St. Joseph, Berrien, Michigan Ida Wesner dau of Ludwig and Mary (Krieger) Wesner/Weisner. She was born 5 Mar 1888 at Russia and died 7 Jan 1955 at Niles, Berrien, Michigan; buried148 at Silverbrook Cemetery, Niles, Berrien County.

     5.    iv.   GUSTAV C. VILLWOCK was born149 9 Feb 1877 at  Elisabetin, Rozyszcze/Rowno Parish Volhynia (Ukraine) and died150 28 Jun 1960 at St. Joseph, Berrien Cty, Mi; buried151 at Silverbrook Cemetery, Niles, Berrien County. He married152,153 4 Jan 1910 at Niles, Berrien County, Michigan Marie P Schadler. She was born 22 Jul 1888 at Russia and died 23 Dec 1978 at Berrien County, Michigan; buried154 at Silverbrook Cemetery, Niles, Berrien County. Three children.

     6.      v.   MARIA JOHANNA VILLWOCK was born155 9 Apr 1879 at Elisabetin, Rozyszcze/Rowno Parish Volhynia (Ukraine). She died156 17 Feb 1881 at Elisabetin.

     7.    vi.   FRIEDRICH WILHELM VILLWOCK was born 6 Aug 1881 at Elisabetin, Rozyszcze/Rowno Parish, Volhynia (Ukraine), and died 5 Dec 1956 at New Nile Tsp, Berrien, Michigan; buried157 at Silverbrook Cemetery, Niles, Berrien County. He married 22 Feb 1916 at Chicago, IL. Gertrude M. Eckart.158 She was born 3 Dec 1884 at Germany, immigrated in 1890, and died 1 Mar 1966; buried159 at Silverbrook Cemetery, Niles, Berrien County. Three children.160

     8.    vii.   EMIL WILHELM VILLWOCK was born161 6 Aug 1883 at Elisabetin, Rozyszcze/Rowno Parish, Volhynia (Ukraine) and died 27 Nov 1970 at Berrien County, Michigan; buried162 at Silverbrook Cemetery, Niles, Berrien County. He married 26 Sep 1914 at Niles, Berrien, Michigan Minnie B. Priebe. She was born 6 Jul 1891 and died 19 Jan 1963; buried163 at Silverbrook Cemetery, Niles, Berrien County. Five children.

     9.  viii.   OTTO WILHELM VILLWOCK was born164 7 Aug 1885 at Elisabetin, Rozyszcze/Rowno Parish, Volhynia (Ukraine). He died165 3 Oct 1888 in Elisabetin, Kreis Lutzk, Volhynia, (Ukraine).

     10.    ix.   PAUL LUDWIG VILLWOCK was born166 10 Dec 1887 at Elisabetin, Rozyszcze Parish, Volhynia (Ukraine). He died167 11 Oct 1888 at Elisabetin, Rozyszcze Parish,Volhynia.

     11.  x.   EMMA WILHELMINA VILLWOCK was born 8 Jul 1890 at Elisabetin, Rosyszcze Parish, Volhynia (Ukraine) and died 9 Dec 1957 at Old Nile Tsp, Berrien County, Michigan; buried168 at Silverbrook Cemetery, Niles, Berrien County. She married169 23 Feb 1918 at Berrien County, Michigan Carl John Schadler son of August and Kathrine (Lockwitz) Schadler.170 He was born 24 Jun 1891 and died 4 Jul 1973; buried171 at Silverbrook Cemetery, Niles, Berrien County. Six children.

     Carl married abt 1959 (2) Olga Tillman; she was born 20 Oct 1902 and died 9 Aug 1969; buried172 at Silverbrook Cemetery, Niles, Berrien County.

    12. August Villwock (no. 3) was born 27 Feb 1848 at Wolschewitz, Kreis Rummelsburg, Pommern (Preuβen) son of Johann and Maria (Stiewe) Villwock and died 7 May 1918 at Berrien County, Michigan; buried173 at Union Cemetery, Berrien Center, Berrien County. He lived in Pommern, Preuβen (Germany) in 1877 and immigrated in 1888.174 He married175 2 Sep 1876 at Seehof, Kreis Rummelsburg, Pommern, Germany Caroline Lohraff. She was born 9 Feb 1850, Prussia and died 4 Feb 1907 at Berrien County, Michigan; buried176 at Union Cemetery, Berrien Center, Berrien County.

    August and Caroline (Lohraff) Villwock had at eight children177 including the following:

     13.      i.   WILHELM JOHANN FRIEDRICH VILLWOCK was born178 21 May 1877 at Wolschewitz, Kreis Rummelsburg, Pommern, Germany, and presumably died in infancy (did not immigrate to Michigan).

     14.     ii.   ROBERT FREDERICK VILLWOCK was born 6 Oct 1878 at Elisabetin, Rozyscze/Rowno, Volhynia (Ukraine) and died179 of carcinoma of the stomach 22 Apr 1936 at Berrien Springs, Berrien, Michigan; buried180 at Silverbrook Cemetery, Niles, Berrien County. He married181 16 Apr 1904 at St. Joseph, Berrien, Michigan Matilda ‘Tillie’ Gersonde, dau of Carl and Anna (Lockwitz) Gersonde.182 She was born 6 Mar 1885 at Russia and died 28 Apr 1960; buried183 at Silverbrook Cemetery, Niles, Berrien County. Five children.

     15.    iii.   GUSTAV CARL AUGUST VILLWOCK was born184 25 Jul 1880 in Elisabetin, Rozyszcze Parish, Volhynia. He may have died young.

     16.    iv.   BERTHA JOHANNA VILLWOCK was born185 22 Sep 1882 at Elisabetin, Rozyszcze Parish, Volhynia (Ukraine) and died 1969 in Ohio; buried186 at Castalia Cemetery, Erie County, Ohio. She married187 20 Sep 1900 at Sandusky County, Ohio August Albert Loraff. He was born188 3 Sep 1878 at Germany and died189 16 Jan 1964 at Sandusky, Erie, Ohio; son of Henry Loraff and Augusta Schwuchow; buried190 at Castalia Cemetery, Erie County. Five children.191

     17.      v.   MARIE FRANCISKA VILLWOCK was born192 2 Feb 1885 in Alt Dubischtsche, Kr. Lutzk, Volhynia. She may have died young.

Family 3

Generation A

    1. Karl Villwock of Pommern, Preuβen. He married abt 1835 Fredericke/Frieda Schaar.193

    Karl and Fredericke (Schaar) Villwock had at least seven children.

     2.      i.   AUGUST VILLWOCK was born May 1836 in Seehof, Kreis Rummelsburg, Pommern and died 1 Apr 1902, Zerrin, Kreis Bütow, Pommern. He married 23 Apr 1869 at Groß Tuchen, Kreis Bütow, Pommern, Prussia Henriette Grönke, daughter of Carl Grönke and Wilhelmine Lorenz . She was born 29 Oct 1848 in Zemmen, Kreis Bütow, Pommern and died 31 Jan 1892 in Zemmen, Kreis Bütow, Pommern,.

     3.      ii.   HEINRICH VILLWOCK was born 22 Dec 1839 in Seehof, Kreis Rummelsburg, Pommern, Prussia, and died 27 Jan 1906 at Adlig Groß Tuchen, Kreis Bütow, Pommern, Germany. He married 20 Nov 1868 at Groß Tuchen, Kreis Bütow, Pommern Johanne Friederike Charlotte Polzin, daughter of Martin Polzin and Henriette Schöneg. She was born 29 Aug 1841 in Zerrin, Kreis Bütow, Pommern, Preußen, and died194 31 Dec 1916 in Groß Tuchen, Kreis Bütow, Pommern, Germany.

    + 4.    iii.   HENRIETTA FRIEDERIKE WILHELMINE VILLWOCK (no. 5) was born 23 Nov 1841 at Seehof, Kr. Rummelsburg, Pommern and died 26 May 1924 at Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan.

    + 5.    iv.   ALBERT FRIEDRICH VILLWOCK was born 25 Oct 1843 at Moddrow, Kr. Bütow, Pommern and died 11 Nov 1918 at Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan.

      6.      v.   FRIEDRICH AUGUST VILLWOCK was born 3 Feb 1847 in Moddrow, Kreis Bütow, Pommern, Prussia. He married195 10 May 1875 at Rozyszcze Parish, Volhynia Bertha Wilhelmine Caroline Hafer.

     7.      vi.   WILHELMINE CHARLOTTE FRIEDERIKE was born 27 Feb 1849 in Moddrow, Kreis .Bütow, Pommern, Prussia and died 8 Jan 1851 in Moddrow.

  + 8.     vii.   EMILIE CHARLOTTE LOUISE (no. 4) was born 13 Mar 1853 in Moddrow, Kreis Bütow, Pommern, Prussia. She died 28 Jan 1936, Berrien County, Michigan.

Generation 1

    4. Henrietta Fredericke Wilhelmine Villwock (no. 5) was born196 23 Nov 1841 at Seehof, Kreis Rummelsburg, Pommern, Prussia and died 26 May 1924 at Benton Harbor, Berrien Michigan; buried197 in Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan. She married 14 Jun 1867 at Groß Tuchen, Kreis Bütow, Pommern, Prussia Johann Georg Ferdinand Hafer, a son of the unmarried Charlotte Hafer. He was born198 10 Apr 1840 at Groß Massowitz, Kreis Bütow, Pommern, Preußen and died199 6 Jan 1929 in Benton Twp, Berrien, Michigan. Ferdinand and Henrietta and four children immigrated on the Weimar, arriving Baltimore 11 May 1892.200,201

    Ferdinand and Henrietta (Villwock) Hafer had at least two children.

      9.      i.   BERTHA HAFER was born 28 May 1864 at Prussia and died202 21 Jan 1942 at Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan; buried203 at Crystal Springs, Benton Harbor, Berrien County. She married204 1883 Frederick Biastock. He was born 5 Oct 1858 at Kreis Bütow, Pommern, Preußen and died 12 Mar 1933 at Benton Harbor; buried205 at Crystal Springs, Benton Harbor, Berrien County. Fifteen children.206

     10.      ii.   ADELINE ‘Lena’ HAFER was born 4 Jul 1870 at Charlottenthal, Kreis Rummelsburg, Pommern, Prussia and died207,208 28 May 1935 at St. Joseph, Berrien, Michigan; buried209 at Crystal Springs, Benton Harbor, Berrien County. She married210 1888 Gottlieb Benke. He was born 14 May 1862 and died 2 Jul 1946; buried211 at Crystal Springs, Benton Harbor, Berrien County. Ten children.212

    5. Albert Friedrich Wilhelm Villwock was born 25 Nov 1843 at Moddrow, Kr. Bütow, Pommern, Prussia, and died213 11 Nov 1918 at Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan; buried214 at Crystal Springs, Benton Harbor, Berrien County. He married215 abt 1866 Hannah Wilhelmine Friederike Boske. They migrated to Volhynia to farm before immigrating to the U. S. in 1892.216 She was born 29 Feb 1844 at Neufeld, Kr. Rummelsburg, Pommern and died 17 Nov 1918 at Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan; buried217 at Crystal Springs, Benton Harbor, Berrien County.218

    Albert and Hannah (Boske) Villwock had twelve children. They included:

     11.      i.   EMILIE HENRIETTA VILLWOCK was born219 18 May 1872 at Marzelindorf, Rowno, Volhynia (Ukraine).

     12.      ii. PAULINA ERNESTINE EVA VILLWOCK was born220 6 Apr 1874 at Marzelinhof, Zhitomir, Volhynia and died 28 Dec 1918 at Burton, Berrien, Michigan. She married221 24 Nov 1892 at Berrien County, Michigan Albert Zoschke son of Henry and Eustine (Hischhke) Zoschke. Eight children.222

     13.     iii.   CARL HERRMANN WILHELM VILLWOCK was born223 17 Sep 1879 at Kostopol, Zhitomir Parish, Volhynia. He may have died young.

    8. Emilie Charlotte Louise (Amelia) Villwock (no. 4) was born 13 Mar 1853 at Moddrow, Kr. Bütow, Pommern (Preuβen) dau of Karl and Friederike (Schaar) Villwock and died 28 Jan 1936 at Berrien County, Michigan; buried224 in Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan. She married 26 Jan 1872 in Groß Tuchen, Kreis Bütow, Germany August Heinrich Maikowski son of Michael and Carolina (Pegolk) Maikowski. The family immigrated to Volhynia before moving to Michigan. He was born 19 Feb 1847 in Kreis Bütow, Pommern, Prussia and died 29 Jan 1932, at Berrien County, Michigan; buried225 in Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan. They immigrated in 1892.

    August and Amelia (Villwock) Maikowski had twelve children226 all born in Russia. Among them are the following:

     14.      i.   HERMAN FRED MAIKOWSKI was born 31 Oct 1875 at Russia and died 24 Feb 1970 at Dowagiac, Cass, Michigan; buried227 in Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan. He married228 (1) 1 Nov 1898 at Berrien County, Michigan Martha Schmaltz dau of Johannes and Augusta (Albrecht) Schmaltz. Martha was born 11 Mar 1880 and died 15 Oct 1936. Four children.229

              Herman married (2) 9 Sep 1939 at St. Joseph, Berrien, Michigan Pauline Grieser Sommerfeld. Pauline was born 15 Jan 1882, and died 21 Jan 1968.

     15.      ii.   GUSTAVE MAIKOWSKI was born 6 Jan 1878 at Russia and died 8 Mar 1964 at Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan; buried230 in Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan. He married231 (1) 29 May 1906 at Berrien County Ida Mable ‘Hilda’ Seel , dau of Henry and Mary (Arney) Seel. She was born 20 Jun 1880 at Lorraine, Ellsworth, Kansas and died 27 Jun 1937 at Berrien County; buried232 in Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan. Five children.

              He married233 (2) 5 Jun 1940 at Berrien County, Michigan Hulda Till.

     16.     iii.   BERTHA CAROLINE ‘MAJKOWSKI’ was born234 15 Jan 1880 at Kostopol, Zhitomir Parish, Volhynia (Ukraine).

     17.      iv.  MARIE HANNA EMILIE (MARY) MAIKOWSKI was born235 29 Mar 1881 at Lessapol, Zhitomir Parish, Volhynia (Ukraine) and died 28 Oct 1956 at St. Joseph, Berrien, Michigan; buried236 in Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan. She married237 22 Nov 1905 Otto Herman Rennhack son of Fred and Paulena (Biastoch) Rennhack.238 He was born 29 Dec 1879 and died 10 Mar 1960 at St. Joseph, Berrien County; buried239 in Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan. Two children.240

     18.      v.   HANNAH LOUISE MAIKOWSKI18. v. was born 18 Oct 1888 and died 9 Feb 1982 at St. Joseph, Berrien County; buried241 at Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan. She married242 30 Jul 1910 at Berrien County, Michigan William C. Gatchell. He was born 6 Feb 1886 at Russia and died 17 Jan 1965 at Benton Harbor, Berrien County; buried243 in Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan. Seven children.244

     19.      vi.   AMELIA MAIKOWSKI was born Jun 1891 at Russia and died 1985; buried245 in Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan. She married246 1 May 1912 at Berrien County Conrad Lewis Sommerfeld son of August and ____ (Krieger).

NOTES

1. Germany did not exist as such until unification of provinces by Otto von Bismarck became effective by treaty, 18 Jan 1871.

2. Fulbrook, Mary A Concise History of Germany (Cambridge, U. K.: Cambridge University Press, 1951), p. 102, map 6.

3. Massie, Robert K. Catherine the Great: Portrait of a Woman (London: Random House, 2011) maps before Part 1.

4. Wikipedia, search Rummelsburg.

5. Rootsweb, search Pomerania.

6. The author had searched for ‘Louisenhof’ in German gazeteers for many decades to no avail.

7. Hansen, Kevan M. Map Guide to German Parish Registers: Kingdom of Prussia, Province of Pomerania I (North Salt Lake, Utah: K. M. Hansen, 2014) p. 64-66.

8. Ibid.

9. They emigrated about the same time and both lived in Niles Township, Berrien County.

10. Heinrich is from Rummelsburg, Pomerania (ref 18, naturalization document); August’s wife Caroline gave birth to a son Wilhelm Johann Friedrich Villwock 21 May 1877, in Wolchewitz, Kr. Rummelsburg {Germany, select births and baptisms, FHL Film 1201415; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 13 Dec 2017)}; Herman’s son Gustav lists his birthplace in 1878 as Poland {1930 U. S. Census of Niles, Berrien, Michigan, Roll 977, Page 10A, E. D. 42, FHL Film2340712; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 13 Dec 2017)}. He actually was born in Elisabetin, Volhynia.

11. Baltimore, Passenger Lists, 1820-1964, ship Karlsruhe, arrived 6 May 1891; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 13 Dec 2017).

12. Amelia’s husband August Maikowski was a pallbearer at Heinrich’s funeral (Heinrich’s obit, see Figure 7).

13. Henrietta was born in the Seehof municipality of Rummelsburg, Pomerania {Ancestry Family Trees: ‘Arbie Sliger Family Tree’, tree 26632304—search Member Directory for owner teresasliger, and sources cited therein (accessed 13 Dec 2017)}; hereafter Sliger Family Tree. There is a ‘Seehof’ in Kolziglow parish (see Note 7).

14. FamilySearch locality search.

15. ‘The Germans from Volhynia and Russian Poland’; online at http://sites.ualberta.ca/~german/AlbertaHistory/Volhynians.htm.

16. Frank, J. ‘A Brief History of Germans in Volhynia’; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/volhist.txt (accessed 29 Mar 2018).

17. ‘Deciphering Cyrillic: Finding Tuchyn’; online at tangledrootsandtrees.blogspot.com; cited Harmsworth 1908 map at Volhynia.com.

18. FamilySearch Family Tree has unlikely parents for Heinrich Villwock in Neustettin, Pommern (Pommern): Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Villwock and Henriette Sophie Koepp—but they were married in 1859! –fifteen years after Henry’s birth (Deutschland, Preussen, Pommern, Kirchenbuecher 1544-1945; https: //familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:KF9c-D28); Heinrich was born in 1844. Further, in his naturalization record, he stated he was born in Rummelsburg (ref 20).

19. Henry Villwock death certificate: Michigan, Death records; wife Lena, informant Herman (of Benton Harbor), death from falling down stairs, age 82 and 2 days, burial at Crystal Springs Cemetery, Benton Harbor.

20. Henry Villwock, Michigan Circuit Court Naturalization Records, Index: Vol. 4, 152 (FHL Film 1954665 item 1); Declaration of Intention, Vol. 5, No. 552, (FHL Film 1954667) states birthplace as Rummelsburg, Germany.

21. Heinrich Villwock and Henrietta (Skale) Villwock obits (auf deutsch), Der Sendbote, 26 Jan 1927, p. 14.(FHL: United States Obituaries, Am. Hist. Soc. of Germans from Russia).

22. Henry Villwock, Michigan Circuit Court Naturalization Records, Index: Vol. 4, 152 (FHL Film 1954665 item 1); Declaration of Intention, Vol. 5, No. 552, (FHL Film 1954667) states birthplace as Rummelsburg, Germany.

23. Henry Villwock death: Michigan, Deaths and Burials Index, 1967-1995; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 1 Dec 2017).

24. Findagrave #133383414.

25. Oral tradition; reported by his dau Hulda to her sisters.

26. 1920 Census of Sodus, Berrien, Michigan, Roll T625_758, Page 7A, E. D. 110, Family no. 114; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 1 Dec 2017).

27. Immigrated from Edmonton, Canada through the North Dakota portal 12 May 1902 (FHL Film 19546767; no longer available—refers to Ancestry, but not findable in the Ancestry file) and 1920 Census of Sodus, Berrien, Michigan, Roll T625_758, Page 7A, E. D. 110, Family no. 114; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 1 Dec 2017).

28. ‘Tuellwork’/’Schale’ marriage: Zhitomir Parish, Volhynia ; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol187xm.txt (accessed 4 Sep 2019).

29. Henrietta had a sister Louisa b. 1845 of Marzelinhof, Volhynia and a brother Wilhelm b. 1843 of Marzelinhof, Volhynia; their marriage banns indicate parents to be (deceased) Johann Skalѐ and mother Kristina (living); from Marriage Bann Kb Rozyszcze, 1865/9 at agad.gov.pl, p. 45 (1865) http://agadd.home.net.pl/metrykalia/439/sygn.%2039/pages/PL_1_439_39_0023.htm and p. 125 (1867) http://agadd.home.net.pl/metrykalia/439/sygn.%2039/pages/PL_1_439_39_0063.htm, respectively.

30. Zhitomir parish records, The Central Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw (agad.gov.pl); online at http://agadd2.home.net.pl/metrykalia/439/sygn.%20245/pages/1_439_0_0_245_0079.htm (accessed 2 Sep 2019).

31. Amelia Villwock Maikowski was b. 1853 in Germany (her children were born in Russia per 1900 census), immigrated with her husband Gust and their five children in 1892; Gust was a pallbearer at Heinrich’s funeral and various family members were witnesses at marriages of Heinrich’s children (Mathilda).

32. Alberta Homestead Records, Film 2052, Accession #1970.313 at Provincial Archives of Alberta; copies of the filing #504035 were obtained by the authors from Claudine Nelson, volunteer at the Alberta Genealogical Society.

33. Stout, Clarence H. From Frontier Days in Leduc and District (Leduc, Alberta, Canada: publisher not identified, 1956) pp. 6-14, 40, 101, 179 (FHL 971.233/L4 H2); page 40 has a group picture that may have included Villwocks (individuals not identified).

34. Third cousins of MDT twice removed.

35. Gottlieb Ferdinand Hänsel baptism: Prussian Provinces, Selected Lutheran Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials, 1661-1944, at Neuhausen, Brandenburg, Kr. Königsberg (Pommern); database at Ancestry.com from FamilySearch.org: Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitze Berlin (accessed 17 Mar 2018).

36. Dagutis, Schalene ‘DNA Discoveries: Finding Anna Eleonore (Schalin) Skale (or Skalay)’ Tangled Roots and Trees, online at http://tangledrootsandtrees.blogspot.com/2016/10/dna-discoveries-finding-anna-eleonore.html and references therein; see also ‘Skalch’/Schalin marriage: Volhynian marriages (Lutheran),1860-1869; Gottlieb and Anna Leonore, 8 Oct 1863 at of Zhitomir Parish, Volhynia, South Russia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol186xm.txt (accessed 29 Mar 2018).

37. cf ‘Jenkins/Smith Tree’, tree 61066341—search Member Directory for owner Shannon Jenkins and ‘Jennings/Lange/Muir/Schalin Family Tree’, tree 11910416—search Member Directory for owner sdagutis, and sources cited therein (accessed 20 Mar 2018).

38. Paulena Villwock obit, ’Paulena Villwock, 81, Dies; Rites Thursday’ Benton Harbor News Palladium, September 29, 1942, p. 9; married 1894, all of her living children are named; hereafter Paulena’s obit.

39. Paulina Villwock death: Michigan Death Certificates, 1921-1952, FHL Film 1973188, parents named, b. Germany; online at FamilySearch (accessed 3 Dec 2017).

40. Ibid.

41. Paulena’s obit

42. Findagrave #133383257.

43. 1920 Census of Sodus, Berrien, Michigan, Roll T625_758, Page 7A, E. D. 110, Family no. 114; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 1 Dec 2017).

44. Lange/Jaster marriage: Zhitomir parish records, FamilySearch database, FHL Film 1897692i1, p. 182, image 307; https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XTFL-9BH.

45. Wilhelm Lange death: http://agadd.home.net.pl/metrykalia/439/sygn.%2042/pages/1_439_0_0_42_0229.htm.

46. Probable because Wilhelm Lang died Dec 1892 and she was born Dec 1892. Her birth record is variable—depending on source, but she believed she was the dau of Wilhelm Lang.

47. 1901 Canadian Census of Friedrichsheim, The North West Territory (Alberta), Canada, District 202, Sub-district R1-1, Film T-6550, Page 4, Family 41, wife Pauline and three oldest named children (Pauline, William, Mathilde) were stated to be born in Russia, Albert, b. 1891 was born in the United States; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 1 Dec 2017).

48. Johanna Berte ‘Fuellwok’ birth: Volhynian births, 1871-1872; online at the Central Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw (agad.gov.pl), Band 439, item 245, page 25; http://agadd2.home.net.pl/metrykalia/439/sygn.%20245/pages/1_439_0_0_245_0016.htm.

49. Johanna Berte ‘Fuellwok’ death: Volhynian births, 1871-1872; online at the Central Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw (agad.gov.pl) http://agadd2.home.net.pl/metrykalia/439/sygn.%20245/pages/1_439_0_0_245_0090.htm.

50. ‘Johann’ Friedrich ‘Fuellwock’ birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran),1870-1875; parents Heinrich and Henrietta (‘Schrale’) Villwock of Marzelindorf, Rowno, Volhynia, South Russia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol187xb.txt (accessed 5 Sep 2019).

51. Auguste Ottilie ‘Vollwock’ birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran),1876-1879; parents Heinrich and Henrietta (‘Skaleh’) Villwock of Marzelnidorf, Zhitomir, Volhynia, South Russia; online at http://www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol187yb.txt.

52. Ludwig Kayser death: Oregon Death Certificate 0677.

53. ’56-Year Resident of Portland Dies’ The Oregon Journal February 18. 1945, p. 10a; copy in possession of the author.

54. Pauline Vullwock birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran),1876-1879; parents Heinrich and Henrietta (‘Skalch’) Villwock of Lessapol, Rowno, Volhynia, South Russia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol187yb.txt (accessed 4 Sep 2019).

55. Pauline Kleeman death: California Death Index, 1940-1997.

56. Kleeman/Villwock marriage: Washington, Marriage Records, 1854-2013; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 3 Dec 2017).

57. Personal communication to the author from ggdau Linda Heafey, Gloucester, MA.

58. Hugo Kleeman birth: California Select Births and Christenings, 1812-1988, FHL Film 1571208, names parents; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 3 Dec 2017).

59. Findagrave #21643641.

60. William C. Villwock obit, ‘ Villwock Rites Held’ Benton Harbor News Palladium, April 27, 1964.

61. Hulda Ernestine ‘Vullwog’ birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran),1876-1879; parents Heinrich and Henrietta (‘Karlin’) Villwock of Plaskow, Rowno, Volhynia, South Russia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol187yb.txt (accessed 29 Mar 2018).

62. Hulda Tingley death: Oregon Death Index 1903-1998, spouse Algern, cert. 1063; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

63. Findagrave #110997587.

64. Tingley/Villwock marriage: Multnomah County, Oregon Marriage Index, Vol. 27, Page 32; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 3 Dec 2017).

65. Findagrave #108851889.

66. Emilia Henriette ‘Vollwock’ birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran), 1870-1875; parents Heinrich and Henriette (‘Skaleh’) Villwock of Kostopol, Zhitomir, Volhynia, South Russia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol188xb.txt

67. ‘Amelia Tetzlaf’: 1901 Canadian Census of of Edmonton, Alberta, The Territories, Page 13, Family 125, Amelia, age 21 and August, age 25; online at Ancestry (accessed 12 Sep 2019).

68. Tetzlaff family: 1920 U. S. Census of Vancouver, Clark, Washington, Roll T625_1922, , sheet 4B, line 54, family 92, immigrated 1891, FHL film 1,821,922; https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MHJ7-ZGD.

69. Findagrave #39954157 and #64780273, good obits.

70. William Villwock death: Michigan Deaths and Burials, 1800-1995, ref 461, database FamilySearch, FHL Film 1954,717; (accessed 3 Dec 2017).

71. Villwock/Biastock marriage: Michigan, Berrien County marriages, no. 528, groom 25 yrs.-bride 18 yrs., both b. Germany, mother’s maiden names: Sklie and Hafer; online at FamilySearch (accessed 1 Dec 2017).

72. Findagrave #78684632 and #78684665.

73. William C. Villwock obit, ’William Villwock’ Benton Harbor News Palladium, April 23, 1964, p. 24; nice bio, names 2 daus and 5 sisters.

74. Coloma Bride Elect Given Clever Party’ Benton Harbor News Palladium, November 1, 1929; Leona Villwock (bride), names 2 out-of-town guests, aunts: Mrs. Albert Villwock and Mrs. August Biastock; Newspaper Archive.

75. 1900 U. S. Census of Chicago Ward 33, Illinois, E. D. 945, Page 7B, Family 131, FamilySearch https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MSQY-LZC.

76. Maude Villwock, U. S. Social Security Death Index, FamilySearch https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:JYVH-76F.

77. Findagrave #94576930.

78. Mathilda Biastock death: Oregon Death Index 1898-2008, cert. 80-01997, birth and death dates; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

79. ‘Biestock’/Villwock marriage: Michigan, Berrien County marriages, no. 431, groom 22 yrs.-bride 19 yrs., both b. Germany, mother’s maiden names: Hafer and unknown; online at FamilySearch (accessed 1 Dec 2017).

80. Herman Wilhelm ‘Biasdach’ birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran), 1870-1875; parents Friedrich and Bertha (Villwock) Biastock of Lessapol, Volhynia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol188xb.txt (accessed 14 Oct 2019).

81. Herman Biastock death: Oregon Death Index, 1903-1998, cert. 5647; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 2 Dec 2017).

82. 1940 U. S. Census of Portland, Multnomah, Oregon, Roll T627_3390, Page 61B, E. D. 37-288; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 4 Dec 2017).

83. See Figure 6. In the 1894 picture (dated because Lana is an infant), Hanna is on the far right of the first row (there is no one else this can be).

84. 1916 Census of Last Mountain (Rosedale), Saskatchewan, Canada, Roll T-21938, Page 6, Family 52; immigrated from U. S. in 1912, G. T. b. 1879 Norway, Hanna, b. 1888 U. S. , 5 children: Evelyn, b. 1909, Gennie, b. 1910, Gudrun, b. 1912, Peter b. 1914, Edward, inf; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 2 Dec 2017).

85. See Figure 7. The 1926 obituaries, The News Palladium (Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan); in the 27 Dec article Hanna would probably be ‘Mrs. Anna Hugo’—in the 28 Dec article she is ‘Mrs. Hanna Taslof’ (probably an error as her sister Mrs. August Tetzlaff was not mentioned).

86. Findagrave #136461129, birth and death dates.

87. 1901 Canadian Census of Friedrichsheim, The North West Territory (Alberta), Canada, District 202, Sub-district R1-1, Film T-6550, Page 2, Family 22; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 1 Dec 2017).

88. 1940 U. S. Census of Bainbridge, Berrien, Michigan, Roll T627_1731, Page 4B, E. D. 11-1, Albert born Oregon; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 3 Dec 2017).

89. Alberta Genealogical Society/Edmonton, Vol. 1 Index to Registration of Births, Marriages, and Deaths 1870-1905 (Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: Alberta Genealogical Society, 1999), p. 604 (FHL 971.23 v22a).

90. ‘Polina Viloock’ in 1910 U. S. Census of Sodus, Berrien, Michigan, Roll T624_638, Page 1B, E. D. 93, FHL Film 1374,651, 7 living of 13 born, names Henrietta’s children down to Albert and all of Paulina’s, omitting Amelia Lang; online at Ancestry (accessed 12 Sep 2019).

91. From her gravestone (Findagrave #78550818); in other places her birth is listed in 1893 or 1894.

92. Amelia Somogi death: Michigan, Deaths and Burials Index, birthplace Winnipeg, Canada; parents: Henry and Pauline (Jester) Villwock, age 65; FHL Film 1954713, online at Ancestry.com (accessed 1 Dec 2017).

93. Findagrave #78550818; husband #78550787, birth and death dates.

94. Frank William Somogi death certificate (auto accident): 30 May 1915, Michigan Death Records, 1867-1952, cert. 311 1343, father Frank Somogi, mother Emilia Lang; dau Edna listed her mother as Emilia Lang at her marriage: Zindler/Somogi marriage, Michigan marriage records, 1867-1952, FHL Film 1954309.

95. ‘Thomoggi/Lang’ marriage: Illinois, Cook County Marriages, 1871-1920, FamilySearch database, https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:N7ZZ-MZZ; her maiden name was listed Amelia Lang, b. 1894.

96. United States World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918″, FamilySearch database https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:7QL6-BN2M.

97. Amelia Villwock Somogi obit: The News-Palladium, Benton Harbor, Saturday, August 1, 1959, p. 14.

98. Michigan Deaths and Burials, 1800-1995, FamilySearch database FHL film 1,954,715 https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:FH7K-36B.

99. 1910 U. S. Census of Benton Harbor Ward 3, Berrien, Michigan, Roll T624_638, Page 9B, E. D. 63, FHL Film 1374,651.

100. 1940 U. S. Census of of Sodus, Berrien, Michigan, Roll m-t0627_01733, Page 12B, E. D. 11-84, Frank. Amelia, dau Edna Zindler and fam, Lena Villwock, age 78; online at Ancestry (accessed 12 Sep 2019).

101. Photos are in the possession of Maralyn D. Tolman of Incline Village, NV.

102. 1920 Census of Sodus, Berrien, Michigan, Roll T625_758, Page 7A, E. D. 110, Family no. 114; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 1 Dec 2017).

103. World War I Draft Registration Card, June 1917; age 21 (b. Canada, 8 Jan 1896), father Henry Villwock, single; ; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 3 Dec 2017).

104. California Death Index, good birth date but has birthplace Indiana? And mother’s maiden name ‘Strome’?; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 3 Dec 2017).

105. World War II Draft Registration Card, 1942, age 45 (b. 8 Jan 1896), b. ‘LaDuke’, Canada, residence Sacramento, CA, contact person: none; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 3 Dec 2017).

106. U.S. Army Transport Service, Passenger List 1910-1939; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 3 Dec 2017).

107. Martha Villwock death: Michigan Death Index, 1971-1996, online at Ancestry (accessed 2 Sep 2019).

108. Findagrave #133839813.

109. 1930 U. S. Census of Detroit District 670, Wayne, Michigan, Roll 1059, Page 1B, E. D. 670, Family 27, FHL Film 2340794, she is a private nurse and single, living with her sister Sarah Villwock Tillman; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 2 Dec 2017).

110. Julius Villwock death: Michigan Death Records, 1867-1950, cert. no. 111 332, born Alberta, Canada, father Henry born Germany, mother Pauline Yastria born Russia, informant Herman Villwock; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 2 Dec 2017).

111. Findagrave #112877728.

112. Harold Villwock obit, ’Area Grocer Villwock dies at 56’ Benton Harbor News Palladium, Monday November 17, 1958.

113. Findagrave #86458532.

114. Findagrave #86457564.

115. Ibid.

116. Gottlieb/George Tillman: Michigan, Federal Naturalization Records, 1887-1931, online at Ancestry.com (accessed 2 Sep 2019).

117. Findagrave #127687090; ‘Sara M. Tillman’.

118. Tillman/’Wellwack’ marriage: Michigan, Marriage Records 1867-1952, cert. no. 82 8348, bride born Canada, father Charles, mother Pauline Jasper; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 2 Dec 2017).

119. Findagrave #96253119.

120. Bischoff/Villwock marriage: Michigan, Berrien County marriages: p. 195, bride’s father’s name Henry, mother’s maiden name Jaster; FHL Film 1954305; online at FamilySearch (accessed 1 Dec 2017).

121. FIndagrave #142633263.

122. Everett Charles Linderman death: Michigan Deaths and Burials, 1867-1995, FHL Film 1954713, spouse: Lydia Bishop; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 6 Sep 2019).

123. Findagrave #132627570.

124. William C. Villwock obit, ’William Villwock’ Benton Harbor News Palladium, April 23, 1964, p. 24; nice bio, names 2 daus and 5 sisters.

125. Lydia Gridley obit, ‘Gridley Rites Held’ Benton Harbor News Palladium, October 30, 1969, p. 15, names nephews as casket bearers.

126. Michigan, Deaths and Burials Index, FHL Film 945407; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 2 Dec 2017).

127. Original pictures (Figs 4,5,7,8) and Fig 6 on cardboard in possession of the authors at Incline Village, Nevada.

128. Herman Villwock death certificate: 6 Sep 1912, names parents and Germany origin.

129. ‘Bad Storm Strikes Niles’ The Milwaukee Sentinel, August 19, 1912, see Findagrave citation.

130. Findagrave #64239312; obit with details of lightning strike are reproduced.

131. Kirchenbuch (Churchbook) Alt Kolziglow (Kreis Rummelsburg), 1946/79, online at https://www.pommerscher-greif.de/kirchenbuch-online.html (membership required).

132. Findagrave #64239191.

133. ‘Vilwock (first 3)/Wilwook’ (last 5) family immigration: Herm (age 47), Hermann (age 18), Johanna (age 45), August (age 11), Emil (age 4), Emma (age 11mo), Friedrich (age 6), and Gustav (age 8), origin Russia; online at www.castlegarden.org (accessed 19 Jun 2006).

134. Herman and Anna ‘Villnock’ Family: 1900 U. S. Census of Berrien, Berrien, Michigan, Roll 702, Page 6B, E. D. 59, FHL Film 1240702, immigrated 1891, 10 children born, 7 alive in 1900; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Dec 2017); hereafter Herman Villwock fam 1900 census.

135. Albert W. Villwock death: Michigan Death Records, cert. 229; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Dec 2017).

136. Findagrave #64238948.

137. Herman Villwock fam 1900 census.

138. Herman Carl Villwock birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran), 1870-1875; parents Hermann and Anna (Friedrich) Villwock of Elisabetin, Rowno, Volhynia, South Russia; online at ww.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol187xb.txt and www.agad.home.net.pl/metykalia/439/sygn.%207/pages/PL)1)439_7_0020.htm (accessed 4 Sep 2019).

139. Findagrave #64239343.

140. ‘Vilwock’/Fetke marriage: Michigan, Berrien Co. marriage records, rec. no. 21, film 80, FHL Film 945413; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Dec 2017).

141. 1930 U. S. Census of Niles, Berrien, Michigan, Roll 977, Page 10B, E. D. 42, FHL Film 2340712, ‘widowed’?, living with brother August; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Dec 2017).

142. 1920 U. S. Census of Berrien, Berrien, Michigan, Roll T625_757, Page 1B, E. D. 80, divorced, living with widowed mother Johanna; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Dec 2017).

143. Findagrave #30050049.

144. August Friedrich Villwock birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran), 1870-1875; parents Hermann and Hanna (Friedrich) Villwock of Elisabetin, Rowno, Volhynia, South Russia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol188xb.txt (accessed 29 Mar 2018).

145. Herman Villwock fam 1900 census.

146. Findagrave #58432791.

147. Villwock/Wesner marriage: Michigan, Berrien County marriages, lic 454, FHL Film 945414; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Dec 2017).

148. Findagrave #58432893.

149. Gustav Villwock birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran),1876-1879; parents Hermann and Johanna (Friedrich) Villwock of Elisabetin, Rowno, Volhynia, South Russia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol187yb.txt (accessed 29 Mar 2018).

150. Gustav Villwock death: Soc. for German Genealogy in Eastern Europe; search index online at https://www.sggee.org/research/parishes/: it often provides a link to agad.gov.pl records; http://agadd.home.net.pl/metrykalia/439/sygn.%2058/pages/PL_1_439_58_0051.htm.

151. Findagrave #13583938.

152. ‘Villsvock’/Schadler marriage: Michigan, Berrien County marriages, mother’s maiden names: Fredrick, Lockwitz; online at FamilySearch (accessed 8 Dec 2017).

153. 1930 U. S. Census of Niles Twp, Berrien, Michigan, Roll 977, Page 10A, E. D. 42, Family 251, FHL Film 2340,712; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 8 Dec 2017).

154. Findagrave #13583949.

155. Maria Johanna ‘Vielwok’ birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran),1876-1879; parents Hermann and Hanna (Friedrich) Villwock of Elisabetin, Rowno, Volhynia, South Russia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol187yb.txt (accessed 4 Sep 2019).

156. Maria Johanna ‘Fuellwork’ death: Volhynian deaths (Lutheran),1880-1885; parents Hermann and Hanna (Friedrich) Villwock of Elisabetin, Rowno, Volhynia, South Russia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol188xd.txt (accessed 4 Sep 2019).

157. Findagrave #58432813.

158. Villwock/Ridley marriage: Michigan marriage records, 20 May 1940, groom’s mother Gertrude Eckart; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 8 Dec 2017).

159. Findagrave #58432822.

160. 1930 U. S. Census of Niles Twp, Berrien, Michigan, Roll 977, Page 10A, E. D. 42, Family 252, FHL Film 2340,712; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 8 Dec 2017).

161. Emil Wilhelm ‘Villwok’ birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran),1880-1885; parents Hermann and Anna (Friedrich) Villwock of Elisabetin, Rowno, Volhynia, South Russia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol188xb.txt (accessed 29 Mar 2018).

162. Findagrave #58432806; contains a transcript of the obit from the Niles Daily Star, November 28, 1970, page 2, col 4.

163. Findagrave #58432889.

164. Oth Wilhelm Villwock birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran),1880-1885; parents Hermann and Johanna (Friedrich) Villwock of Elisabetin, Rowno, Volhynia, South Russia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol188xb.txt (accessed 29 Mar 2018).

165. Otto Wilhelm Villwock death: Soc. for German Genealogy in Eastern Europe; search index online at https://www.sggee.org/research/parishes/: it often provides a link to agad.gov.pl records; http://agadd.home.net.pl/metrykalia/439/sygn.%2059/pages/PL_1_439_59_0044.htm.

166. Paul Ludwig Villwock birth: Soc. for German Genealogy in Eastern Europe; search index online at https://www.sggee.org/research/parishes/: it often provides a link to agad.gov.pl records; http://agadd.home.net.pl/metrykalia/439/sygn.%2012/pages/PL_1_439_12_0171.htm.

167. Paul Ludwig Villwock death: Soc. for German Genealogy in Eastern Europe; search index online at https://www.sggee.org/research/parishes/: it often provides a link to agad.gov.pl records; http://agadd.home.net.pl/metrykalia/439/sygn.%2059/pages/PL_1_439_59_0044.htm.

168. Findagrave #59189192.

169. Schadler/Villwock marriage: Michigan, Berrien County marriages, FHL Film 2240675, online at Ancestry.com (accessed 8 Dec 2017).

170. Ibid. and Ancestry Family Trees: ‘Zebarth Family Tree’, tree 79147126—search Member Directory for owner Daniel Zebarth; and sources cited therein (accessed 9 Dec 2017).

171. Findagrave #59189200.

172. Findagrave #58519569.

173. Findagrave #64238984.

174. 1900 U. S. Census of Berrien, Berrien, Michigan, Rol 702, Page 7B, E. D. 59 FHL Film 1240702, parents and two children, Robert and Bertha, all born Germany and immigrated 1888; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 6 Dec 2017); hereafter August Villwock family/1900 census.

175. Ibid. and Polish marriages online at The Pomeranian Genealogical Society, Book 304/1 www.ptg.gda.pl/index.php/certificate/action/searchM/ (accessed 19 Dec 2017).

176. Findagrave #64239025.

177. August Villwock family/1900 census; 2 of 8 children alive in 1900.

178. Wilhelm J. F. Villwock birth: Zivilstandsregister Pommern, FHL Film 1201415, parents August and Caroline (Lohraff) Villwock are named; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 6 Dec 2017).

179. Robert Villwock death: Michigan Death Records, 1867-1950, Benton Harbor 111 3209; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 6 Dec 2017).

180. Findagrave #58432935.

181. Villwock/Gersonde marriage: Michigan, Berrien County marriages, FHL Film 2240798; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 6 Dec 2017).

182. 1900 U. S. Census of St. Joseph, Berrien, Michigan, Rol 703, Page 11B, E. D. 76 FHL Film 1240703; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 6 Dec 2017).

183. Findagrave #58432879.

184. Gustav Carl August Villwock birth: Soc. for German Genealogy in Eastern Europe; search index online at https://www.sggee.org/research/parishes/: it often provides a link to agad.gov.pl records; http://agadd.home.net.pl/metrykalia/439/sygn.%208/pages/PL_1_439_8_0067.htm.

185. Bertha Johanna ‘Villwok’ birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran), 1880-1885; parents August and Karolina (Loraff) Villwock of Elisabetin, Volhynia, South Russia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol188xb.txt (accessed 29 Mar 2018).

186. Findagrave #105128958.

187. ‘Loroff’/Villwock marriage: Ohio, Sandusky County marriages 1774-1993, FamilySearch FHL Film 506621; https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:X8MM-VZR; also has August’s b’date (accessed 6 Dec 2017).

188. Ibid.

189. August Loroff death: Ohio, Deaths cert. 02437, age 85; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 6 Dec 2017).

190. Findagrave #105128948.

191. 1940 U. S. Census of Margaretta, Erie, Ohio, Roll T627_3063, Page 3B, E. D. 20-10A; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 6 Dec 2017).

192. Marie Franciska Villwock birth: Soc. for German Genealogy in Eastern Europe; search index online at https://www.sggee.org/research/parishes/: it often provides a link to agad.gov.pl records; http://agadd.home.net.pl/metrykalia/439/sygn.%2010/pages/PL_1_439_10_0238.htm.

193. Henrietta Hafer death certificate: Michigan, Deaths and Burials, 26 May 1924, names parents and Germany origin, FHL Film 1954721; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

194. Kirchenbuch (Churchbook) Groβ Tuchen (Kreis Bütow), 1916/55, online at https://www.pommerscher-greif.de/kirchenbuch-online.html (membership required).

195. Villwock/Hafer marriage: Roschischtsche Parish, Volhynia ; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol187xm.txt (accessed 4 Sep 2019).

196. Sliger Family Tree and sources therein.

NOTE: the Sliger Family Tree has Henrietta married (1) to Ferdinand Mattik/Matthik, but the marriage document (FamilySearch: Deutschland, Preussen, Pommern Kirchenbuecher 1544-1945, FHL Film 1193883, image 89) has Ferdinand age 30 (b. 1827) married to Henrietta Luise Villwock, bride’s father Johann Ludwig Villwock. This Henriette is born too early, has the wrong father, and the wrong middle name—it is not the right Henriette Villwock.

197. Findagrave #132524960.

198. Kirchenbuch Groβ Tuchen (Kreis Bütow), 1940/42, online at https://www.pommerscher-greif.de/kirchenbuch-online.html.

199. Ferdinand Hafer death: Michigan, Deaths and Burials Index 1867-1995, FHL Film 1954721; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 14 Dec 2017).

200. Baltimore Passenger Lists 1820-1964, ship Weimar, arrived May 1892, lists Ferdinand and Henrietta, (ages 52 and 59), and dau Adeline (age 22)with her husband Gottlieb (age 30) and 2 gdaus ‘Emiline’ (Amelia, age 2) and ‘Emma’ (Anna, age 4 mos.), origin Russia/Poland, destination Michigan; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 14 Dec 2017).

201. 1900 U. S. Census of Sodus, Berrien, Michigan, Roll 703, Page 7B, E. D. 79, Dwelling 159, oldest children are Amelia A. and Anna F., FHL Film 1240703; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

202. Bertha Biastock death: Michigan, Deaths and Burials Index, names parents, FHL Film 1954922; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

203. Findagrave #130669944.

204. ‘Biestoch’ family: 1910 U. S. Census of Sodus, Berrien, Michigan, Roll T624_638, Page 5B, E. D. 93, 12 of 15 children still living, FHL Film 1374651; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017); hereafter Biastock 1910 census.

205. Findagrave #130670050.

206. Biastock 1910 census.

207. Adeline Benke death: Michigan, Deaths and Burials Index, of uremic coma, names parents and parents birthplaces: ‘Scholottenhal, Germany’ (i.e. Charlottental), FHL Film 1954670; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

208. Adeline Hafer Benke obit, The News-Palladium (Benton Harbor), Wednesday, May 29, 1935, page 6.

209. Findagrave #130663854.

210. Benke family: 1910 U. S. Census of Sodus, Berrien, Michigan, Roll T624_638, Page 8A, E. D. 93, 8 of 10 children still living, FHL Film 1374651; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017); hereafter Benke 1910 census.

211. Findagrave #130663872.

212. Benke 1910 census.

213. Albert Villwock death: Michigan Death Records, 1867-1950, of bronchopneumonia; names parents Karl and Frieda (Schad) Villwock; informant Albert Zoschke; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

214. Findagrave #133839737.

215. 1910 U. S. Census of Benton Twp, Berrien, Michigan, Roll T624_638, Page 3B, E. D. 57, FHL Film 1374651, Albert and Hannah ‘Vellworth’ are living with their dau Paulina ‘Losekky’ (Zoschke), married 44 yrs., 1 child of 12 still alive; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017); hereafter Zoschke 1910 census.

216. Ibid.

217. Findagrave #133839745.

218. ‘Spalding Family Tree’, tree 101159340—search Member Directory for owner tgspalding58, and sources cited therein (accessed 13 Dec 2017); hereafter Spalding Family Tree.

219. Emilie Henriette ‘Fuellwock’ birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran),1880-1885; parents Albert and Johanna (‘Booske’) Villwock of ‘Kostopol’, Rowno, South Russia (Ukraine); online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol188xb.txt (accessed 4 Sep 2019).

220. Pauline Ernestine Eva ‘Villwoch’ birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran),1870-1875; parents Albert and Johanna (Boske) Villwock of Marzelindorf, Rowno, South Russia (Ukraine); online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol188xb.txt (accessed 4 Sep 2019).

221. Zoschke/Villwock marriage: Michigan, Berrien County marriages, no. 1127, FHL Film 2230714; online at FamilySearch (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

222. Zoschke 1910 census.

223. Carl Herrmann Wilhelm Villwock birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran),1880-1885; parents Albert and Johanna (Bose) Villwock of ‘Kostopol’, Rowno, South Russia (Ukraine); online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol188xb.txt (accessed 29 Mar 2018).

224. Findagrave #133191646; Amelia ‘Willwock’ Maikowski.

225. Findagrave #133383316.

226. 1900 U. S. Census of Benton, Berrien, Michigan, Roll 702, Page 13B, E. D. 58, Dwelling 287, 5 of 12 children still living, FHL Film 1240702; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

227. Findagrave #133383380.

228. Maikowski/Schmaltz marriage: Michigan, Berrien County, no. 359; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

229. Spalding Family Tree.

230. Findagrave #78685318.

231. Villwock/Arney marriage: Michigan, Berrien County marriages, FHL Film 9435 413; online at FamilySearch (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

232. Findagrave #78685346.

233. Maikowski/Till marriage: Michigan, Berrien County marriages, FHL Film 1954312; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

234. Bertha Caroline ‘Majkowski’ birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran), 1880-1885; parents August and Emilie (‘Vollwock’) Majkowski of Kostopol, Volhynia, South Russia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol188xb.txt (accessed 4 Sep 2019).

235. Marie Hanna Emilie Maikowski birth: Volhynian births (Lutheran), 1880-1885; parents August and Emilie (‘Vuellwock’) Maikowski of Kostopol, Volhynia, South Russia; online at www.odessa3.org/collections/stpete/volhynia/link/vol188xb.txt (accessed 4 Sep 2019).

236. Findagrave #78550240.

237. Rennhack/Maikowski marriage: Michigan, marriage records 1867-1952, page 1396; online at FamilySearch (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

238. 1900 U. S. Census of Chikaming, Berrien, Michigan, Roll 702, Page 1B, E. D. 63, FHL Film 1240702; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

239. Findagrave #78550219.

240. 1930 U. S. Census of Benton Harbor, Berrien, Michigan, Roll 976, Page 1A, E. D. 7, Dwelling 10, FHL Film 2340711; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

241. Findagrave #132187708.

242. Gatchel/Maikowski marriage: Michigan, Berrien County marriages, no. 892, FHL Film 945414; online at FamilySearch (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

243. Findagrave #132187721.

244. 1920 U. S. Census of Bainbridge, Berrien, Michigan, Roll T625_757, Page 8B, E. D. 68; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017) and Spalding Family Tree.

245. Findagrave #77169427.

246. Sommerfeld/Maikowski marriage: Michigan, Berrien County marriages, FHL Film 2240833; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 15 Dec 2017).

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