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The Ancestry of Richard Chace Tolman (1881-1948)


The Ancestry of Richard Chace Tolman (1881-1948)

 

By Richard L. Tolman, Ph. D.

 

     Richard Chace Tolman, a physical chemist and mathematical physicist, was one of the great American scientists of the 20th Century. The Southern California Section of the American Chemical Society honored him (1960) by announcing that a ‘Tolman Medal’ would be presented each year in recognition of outstanding achievements in chemistry.1

Figure 1. Richard Chace Tolman in 1945.

     R. C. Tolman grew up in West Newton, Massachusetts; his forebears were Massachusetts residents of the Boston area from colonial times. He spent most of his career at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena (beginning in 1922) where he became professor of physical chemistry and later dean of the graduate school.2 A major influence in his life was his mother’s brother Arnold Buffum Chace, eleventh Chancellor of Brown University (1907-1932).3 Richard Chace Tolman was a friend of J. Robert Oppenheimer, a physicist and father of the atomic bomb. He was the mentor and advisor of Linus Pauling at CalTech (twice a nobel laureate).4

     He attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) after high school and graduated with a Bachelor of Science in chemical engineering in 1903. Thereafter he spent a year in Germany at the Technische Hochschule in Charlottenburg (Berlin) and then some time at an industrial firm in Krefeld (then Crefeld). This was probably done5 to provide him some training in the German language, a strict requirement for the Ph. D. degree at MIT. He returned to Boston and did graduate work at MIT with Alfred A. Noyes as his mentor graduating with a Ph.D. in physical chemistry in 1910. He served as Instructor of Physical Chemistry at the University of Michigan (1910-1911) and then as Assistant Professor first at University of Cincinnati (1911-1912)and then at the University of California (1912-1916). He was Professor of Physical Chemistry at the University of Illinois for two years before being appointed Professor of Physical Chemistry and Mathematical Physics at the California Institute of Technology . During World War I he was Chief of the Dispersoid Section of the Chemical Warfare Service (1919-1922) with the rank of major.6 During his scientific career he authored four books and many papers that were characterized by a very wide range of interests and collaborators.

     He wrote in a 1920 paper (co-authors Karrer, Guernsey and Mott-Smith) a remarkable note that was very characteristic of him:7

(after acknowledging their thanks to the three sources that had given support to the work) ‘in particular to express to the Government their appreciation of the policy of encouraging the staff of a government laboratory to devote a portion of their time and facilities to the investigation of fundamental scientific questions which have no immediate bearing upon the main problem of the laboratory. It is believed that such a liberal policy is of great importance in maintaining a proper scientific attitude on the part of the staff of a research laboratory.’

     My…how times have changed.

     He coined the concept of relativistic mass by writing an equation for defining the mass of a moving body. In a 1916 experiment he demonstrated that electricity consists of electrons moving through a metallic conductor. A by-product of this experiment was a measured value for the mass of the electron. His much-used text on statistical mechanics (1927) brought him wide acclaim as a theorist. He was a member of the Technical Alliance in 1919, a forerunner of the Technocracy movement and helped conduct an energy survey analyzing the possibility of applying science to social and industrial affairs.

Figure 2. Richard C. Tolman and Albert Einstein in 1932.

     He was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1922. In the later years of his career he became interested in the application of thermodynamics to relativistic systems and cosmology. He published an important monograph in 1934 that demonstrated how black body radiation in an expanding universe cools but remains thermal—a key pointer toward the properties of the cosmic microwave background. During World War II he served as a scientific advisor to General Leslie Groves on the Manhattan Project and at the time of his death was advisor to Bernard Baruch, the U. S. representative to the United States Atomic Energy Commission.8

     Richard Chace Tolman is the sixth great-grandson of the Lancashire (England) immigrant Thomas Tolman, who settled in Dorchester, Massachusetts in 1635 (cf. ‘Thomas Tolman (1608-1690) of Dorchester, Massachusetts).9 …and he is a seventh cousin twice-removed of the author.

GENEALOGICAL SUMMARY

Generation Three10

1. John2  Tolman/Toleman/Toalman (John1 ThomasA) was born 6 Apr 1671 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts the son of John and Elizabeth (Collins) Tolman.11 He died 23 Oct 1759 (at 89 yrs). He married (1) 1 Feb 1696/7 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts Susanna Breck daughter of John and Susanna (probably Clapp)12 Breck. She was born 9 Nov 1678 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died 20 Feb 1712/3 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts. He married (2) 1 Apr 1714 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts Elizabeth White; she was born abt 1679 and died 25 Jun 1768 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts.

John and Susanna (Breck) Tolman had seven children:13

    2    i.  JEMIMA TOLMAN14,15,16 was born17 9 May 1698 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died 17 Feb 1735 at Worcester, Worcester, Massachusetts. She married18 31 May 1722 at Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts Charles Davenport, Jr. son of Charles and Waitstill (Smith) Davenport. He was born 15 Feb 1700 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died 1 Feb 1747. He married (2) in 1735 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts Joanna Wilson. Three children19 by Jemima, five by Joanna.20

 + 3  ii.  JOHN TOLMAN was born 6 Apr 1700 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died 29 May 1779. He married 2 Jan 1734 Hannah Clap daughter of Ebenezer and Hannah (Clapp) Clapp.

    4 iii. JERUSHA TOLMAN was born21 24 Aug 1702 and died22 17 Feb 1764 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts. She married 21 May 1723 at Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts Richard Humphrys; he died before 1764.23,24 One daughter.25

    5 iv.  SUSANNA TOLMAN was born26 13 May 1705 and baptized27 6 Jun 1705 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts; died 28 Sep 1733.28,29 She married30 28 Oct 1729 Atkins Marshall. He was born abt 1708 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died 24 Mar 1754. He married (2) 17 Jun 1742 at Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts Sarah Williams and (3) 20 Oct 1752 at Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts Hannah Rogers.31

    6   v.  RUTH TOLMAN was born32 10 Apr 1708 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts; died33,34 5 Mar 1708/9.35

    7   vi.  JOSIAH TOLMAN was born36 19 Apr 1710 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and baptized37 in the First Church, Dorchester 23 Apr 1710. He died after 1757.38

    8  vii.  ELIJAH TOLMAN was born39 2 Feb 1712/3 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts. He died40 21 Feb 1765 by drowning as he was crossing the ice from Boston. He married41 8 Sep 1736 at Dorchester Hannah Humphrey of Needham the daughter of John and Hannah Humphreys. She was baptized in the First Church, Dorchester 4 Apr 1714 and died 14 Feb 1747 in Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts.42 Four children.43

John and Elizabeth (White) Tolman had four children:

    9   i.  PRISCILLA TOLMAN was born 31 Aug 1715 and died44 5 Oct 1760 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts. She married 20 Nov 1733 at Dorchester Ebenezer Bird son of James and Miriam Bird.45,46 He was baptized at the First Church, Dorchester 14 Mar 1707/8 and died 17 Jan 1753/4 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts.47 Seven children.48

   10  ii.  PATIENCE TOLMAN was born 1 Jan 1718 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died after 1757. She married (1) 9 Mar 1741 at Dorchester Thomas Evans son of Thomas and Hannah (Glover) Evans. He was born 10 Dec 1687 and was baptized in the First Church, Dorchester 26 Sep 1697.49 She married (2) before 174350 Edward Capen son of Samuel and Susannah (Payson) Capen.51 He was born 24 Sep 1683 and died 28 Jun 1770 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts.52

   11 iii.  SUBMIT TOLMAN was born53 19 Jun 1722 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died54,55 17 Jun 1743 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts.

   12  iv.  MERCY TOLMAN was born56 27 Jun 1724 and died57 14 Sep 1724 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts.

Generation Four

3. John3 Tolman (John2 John1 ThomasA) was born 6 Apr 1700 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died 29 May 1779 from the sting of bees. He was a wheelwright.58 He married 2 Jan 1734 Hannah Clap daughter of Ebenezer and Hannah (Clapp) Clapp. She was born59,60 28 Nov 1707 and died61 16 Mar 1799 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts.

John and Hannah (Clap) Tolman had seven children:62

   13   i.  HANNAH TOLMAN, born63 11 May 1736 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died64 30 Jul 1775 (at age 40) at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts. She married65 1 Nov 1763 (Deacon) Edward Pierce son of Samuel and Abigail (Mosely) Pierce. He was born 1735 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died66 22 Feb 1818 (at 83 yrs). He married67 (2) 29 Apr 1777 at Dorchester Sarah Wiswell and (3)68 28 Mar 1782 at Dorchester (Mrs.) Relief Foster. Two children by Hannah, one by Sarah.69

+ 14  ii.  JOHN TOLMAN, born 13 Apr 1738 and died 10 Aug 1820 (at 87 yrs) at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts.

   15 iii. (Lieutenant) EZEKIEL TOLMAN, born70 24 Oct 1740 and died71 31 Dec 1827 at Bellingham, Norfolk, Massachusetts. He fought in the Revolutionary War at several engagements including the Lexington Alarm and at Castle Island.72 He married73 20 Nov 1764 at Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts Sarah Perry. She was probably born74 8 Feb 1741 at Roxbury, Suffolk, Massachusetts, daughter of John and Thankfull Perry and died 16 Oct 1821 (age 80) at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts.75 Nine children.76

   16  iv.  JEMIMA TOLMAN, born77 28 May 1743 and died78 24 May 1774 (at 31 yrs) at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts. Never married.

   17   v.  RUTH TOLMAN, born79 5 Nov 1745 and died80 9 Jan 1750 (at 6 yrs) at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts.

   18  vi.  SUSANNAH TOLMAN, born81 16 Aug 1749 and died82 12 Jan 1750 (at 17 mos) at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts.

   19 vii.  NATHANIEL TOLMAN, born83 16 Mar 1752 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts (stillborn).

Generation Five

14. John4 Tolman (John3 John2 John1 ThomasA) born 13 Apr 1738 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died 10 Aug 1820 (at 87 yrs) at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts. He married (1) 16 Apr 1761 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts Elizabeth Baker daughter of John and Sarah (Wiswell) Baker. She was born 25 Jun 1737 and died in childbirth 23 Nov 1762 (at 25 yrs) at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts. He married (2) 31 May 1764 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts Hannah Hall daughter of Richard and Mary (Maudsley) Hall. She was born 20 Sep 1745 and died84 22 Apr 1828 (at 82 yrs) at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts.

John and Elizabeth (Baker) Tolman had a daughter:85

   20    i.  ELIZABETH TOLMAN, born 20 Nov 1762 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died 6 Nov 1847 at Massachusetts. She married86 11 Jan 1785 (Captain) Thomas Williams.

John and Hannah (Hall) Tolman had six children:87

   21  ii. HANNAH TOLMAN, born88 19 Mar 1765 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died 8 Jan 1806 at Dorchester, Norfolk, Massachusetts.89 She married90 (1) 8 Jun 1786 John Preston; he may have died early.91 One child.

   22  iv.  JOHN TOLMAN, born92 21 Feb 1768 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died 22 Sep 1799 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts. He married93 12 Dec 1792 Ann Capen, daughter of Barnard and Elizabeth Capen. She was born 1760 and died94 28 May 1844 (age 84) at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts. Four children.95

+ 23   v.  (Deacon) ELISHA TOLMAN, born 10 Jan 1771 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died 4 May 1858 at Dorchester, Norfolk, Massachusetts.

   24  vi.  JEMIMA TOLMAN, born96 3 Nov 1774 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died97 2 Aug 1854 (age 79) at Dorchester, Norfolk, Massachusetts. She married98 21 Jul 1794 Alexander Glover III.

   25 vii.  (Captain) STEPHEN TOLMAN, born99 4 Jan 1777 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died100 22 Aug 1864 at Dorchester, Norfolk, Massachusetts. He was a farmer.101 In the War of 1812 he was the captain of a company in the defense of Fort Independence.102 He married 16 Oct 1806 Mary Pierce daughter of Jonathan and Mary (Glover) Pierce. She was born 2 Nov 1781 and died 15 Jan 1860 at Dorchester.103

   26 viii.  EUNICE TOLMAN, born104 16 Jan 1782 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died105 10 Feb 1831 at Boston, Norfolk, Massachusetts. She married106 6 Dec 1804 Jonathan Pierce.

Generation Six

23. (Deacon) Elisha5 Tolman (John4 John3 John2 John1 ThomasA) born107 10 Jan 1771 at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died108 4 May 1858 (87y, 4m) at Dorchester, Suffolk, Massachusetts. He went to Lincoln and then to Concord where he became the deacon of the first church in Concord.109 He was also a shoemaker. He married110 18 Sep 1797 at Roxbury, Norfolk, Massachusetts Lucretia Pike daughter of James and Lucretia (Pope) Pike. She was born 8 May 1779 at Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died111 25 Apr 1814 at Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts.112 She was a silversmith.113 Elisha married (2) 19 Sep 1816 at Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts Abigail (Nabby) Adams. She was born abt 1781 of Concord and died114 16 Sep 1831 at Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts.

Elisha and Lucretia (Pike) Tolman had five children.

   27   i.  ELISHA TOLMAN, born115 4 Nov 1798 at Lincoln, Middlesex, Massachusetts and died 1853 at Massachusetts. He married116 Henrietta Howe Mayo. She was born 19 Oct 1801 at Roxbury, Norfolk, Massachusetts and died117 of carcinoma 2 Oct 1874 at Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts. She was the daughter of Thomas and Amy (Davis) Mayo. Nine children.

   28 ii.  LUCRETIA PIKE TOLMAN, born118 10 Apr 1800 at Lincoln, Middlesex, Massachusetts and died119 2 Jun 1801 (at 14 mo) at Lincoln, Middlesex, Massachusetts.

   29 iii.  LUCRETIA TOLMAN, born120 11 Dec 1805 at Lincoln, Middlesex, Masssachusetts and died121 5 Jul 1839 at Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts. She married122 14 Jun 1828 at Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts Lysander L. Bascom.

   30 iv.  ALBERT W. TOLMAN, born123 23 Dec 1808 at Lincoln, Middlesex, Massachusetts and died124 21 Oct 1891 at Worcester, Worcester, Massachusetts. He was a blacksmith and carriage-maker; he was said to have invented the rickshaw. He married125 (1) 3 Apr 1839 at Brookline, Norfolk, Massachusetts Susanna Russell Whiting; she had married126 (1) 19 Oct 1833 at Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts Samuel L. Hunstable; she was born127 27 May 1813 to Gardner and Susannah Whiting at Charlestown, Suffolk, Massachusetts. Albert married128 (2) 1 Aug 1861 at Worcester, Worcester, Massachusetts Olive N. Flagg daughter of Rufus and Catherine Flagg.

+ 31  v.  JAMES TOLMAN, born 17 Nov 1811 at Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts and died 16 Dec 1868 of phthisis (tuberculosis) at Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, buried at Forest Hills.

Elisha and Nabby (Adams) Tolman had two children.129

   32   i.  ABIGAIL TOLMAN, born130 15 Nov 1819 at Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts and died131 13 Sep 1843 at Massachusetts. Never married.

   33  ii.  BENJAMIN TOLMAN, born132 4 Oct 1822 at Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts. He married133 11 Dec 1847 at Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts Anne Jane Bigelow.

Generation Seven

31. James6 Tolman (Elisha5 John4 John3 John2 John1 ThomasA) born134 17 Nov 1811 at Concord, Middlesex, Massachusetts and died 16 Dec 1868 of phthisis (tuberculosis) at Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, buried at Forest Hills.135,136,137 He was a merchant tailor.138 He married139 11 Oct 1844 at Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts Elizabeth Metcalf Smith daughter of Michael and Anna ‘called Nancy’ (Battelle) Smith.140,141,142 She was born143 20 Feb 1808 in Portland, Cumberland, Maine and died of pneumonia 1 Jan 1891 (age 82y, 10m).144

James and Elizabeth (Metcalf Smith) Tolman had three children.145,146,.’]147

   34   i.  HARRIET SMITH TOLMAN, born148 27 Jun 1846 at Massachusetts and died149 after 1920. Never married.

+ 35  ii.  JAMES PIKE TOLMAN, born 7 Nov 1847 at Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died 28 Jul 1915.

   36 iii.  ABBY TOLMAN, born150 13 Jun 1849 at Roxbury, Norfolk, Massachusetts and died151 16 Nov 1875 (age 26) of phthisis (tuberculosis) at Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, buried at Forest Hills. Never married.

Generation Eight

35. James7 Pike Tolman (James6 Elisha5 John4 John3 John2 John1 ThomasA) born152 7 Nov 1847 at Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts and died153 28 Jul 1915 at Newton, Middlesex, Massachuschetts of cerebral hemorrhage. He was a manufacturer of cotton cordage.154 He was a member of the first graduating class at MIT and became one of the trustees. He married155 17 Feb 1880 Mary Elizabeth Chace daughter of Samuel Buffington and Elizabeth (Buffum) Chace.156 Mary Elizabeth married157 (1) 4 May 1874 at Winthrop, Suffolk, Massachusetts Horace Rundlett Cheney, son of Oren B. Cheney, founder of Bates College; Horace died 13 Dec 1876.158 Mary Elizabeth Chace was born 4 Jan 1852 at Smithfield, Providence, Rhode Island and died159 1928 at Newton, Middlesex, Massachusetts. Mary Elizabeth was born into the famous Quaker anti-slavery Buffum family whose genealogy is well documented.160 Besides being an avid abolitionist she was a well-known women’s suffrage supporter.161 Her father Samuel Buffington Chace was a descendant of the Roxbury immigrant William Chase.162

                  

Figure 3. Samuel Buffington Chace, Elizabeth Buffum.

Horace W. and Mary Elizabeth (Chace) Cheney had a daughter:

   37   i.  ELIZABETH CAROLINE CHENEY, born 14 Sep 1875 and died 4 Dec 1961. She married 7 Nov 1899 Albert Paine Carter. Two children. 163

James Pike and Mary Elizabeth (Chace) Tolman had two children:

+ 38   i.  RICHARD CHACE TOLMAN, born 4 Mar 1881 at West Newton, Middlesex, Massachusetts and died 4 Sep 1948 at Pasadena, Los Angeles, California three weeks after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage.

                                      

Figure 4. Edward Chace Tolman, Ruth Sherman Tolman (abt 1931), Arnold Buffum Chace.

   39  ii.  EDWARD CHACE TOLMAN, born 14 Apr 1886 at West Newton, Middlesex, Massachusetts and died164 19 Nov 1959 at Berkeley, Alameda, California and is buried at Hartley Cemetery, Lakeport, Lake, California.165 He was educated at MIT and Harvard (Ph.D. 1915) and taught most of his career at University of California at Berkeley. He was a notable American psychologist who is considered to be the father of cognitive learning.166 While at Berkeley he led the faculty in ‘The Year of the Oath’ (1949-1950) in the battle which preserved academic freedom at the University.167 He married168 30 Aug 1915 at Cambridge, Middlesex, Massachusetts Kathleen Drew daughter of Edward and Anna (David) Drew. She was born 24 Jun 1886 at Shanghai, China and died 12 Sep 1963 at Berkeley, Alameda, California169 and is buried at Hartley Cemetery, Lakeport, Lake, California. Three children.170

Figure 5. Ruth Sherman Tolman and Richard Chace Tolman, abt 1925.

Generation Nine

38. Richard8 Chace Tolman (James7 James6 Elisha5 John4 John3 John2 John1 ThomasA) born171 4 Mar 1881 at West Newton, Middlesex, Massachusetts and died172 4 Sep 1948 at Pasadena, Los Angeles, California three weeks after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage. He married173 5 Aug 1924 at Alameda, California Ruth Sherman daughter of Warren C. and Lilly (Graham) Sherman.174 She was born175 10 Oct 1893 at Daviess County, Indiana and died176 18 Sep 1957 at Los Angeles County, California. She graduated from the University of California in 1917 and was a clinical psychologist.177 She obtained a Ph. D. in clinical psychology after her marriage.178 Both Tolmans were good friends with J. Robert Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb.179 He stayed with them in their Spanish style home in Pasadena whenever he was in the Los Angeles area. Oppenheimer was a consultant of presidents, a brilliant physicist and charismatic intellectual, a communist, a patriot, and also a philanderer. Ruth Sherman Tolman was one of his lovers although she was considerably older (11 years) than he.180 There was apparently never a thought of Ruth abandoning her husband Richard; she was apparently ‘devastated’ at her husband’s death.181 No issue.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

     The author wishes to acknowledge the contribution (in 2006) of Gary Boyd Roberts of the New England Historic Genealogical Society (NEHGS) to the research on the James P. and Elizabeth (Metcalf Smith) Tolman family.

NOTES

1. Southern California Section of the American Chemical Society, online at scalacs.org.

2. Wikipedia, online at en.wikipedia.org (searchterm: Richard C. Tolman).

3. ‘Chace, Arnold Buffum’ From Martha Mitchell’s Encyclopedia Brunoniana online at www.brown.edu/News_Bureau/Databases/Encyclopedia (accessed 8 Jun 2015).

4. Wikipedia, online at en.wikipedia.org (searchterm: Richard C. Tolman).

5. Ritchie, Benbow F ‘Edward Chace Tolman’ Biographical Memoirs National Academy of Sciences, Vol. XXVII (Washington, D. C.: Nat’l Academy of Science, 1952) pp.293-324.

6. Kirkwood, J. O., O. R. Wulf, and P. S. Epstein ‘Richard Chace Tolman’ Biographical Memoirs National Academy of Sciences, Vol. XXVII (Washington, D. C.: Nat’l Academy of Science, 1952) pp.139-153.

7. Ibid.; quote and comment from p. 140.

8. Ibid.

9. Tolman, Richard L. ‘Thomas Tolman (1608-1690) of Dorchester, Massachusetts’; essay on the www.29deadpeople.com website; describes Thom. Tolman descendants to generation 3 including gson John Tolman (1671-1759), a direct ancestor of R. C. Tolman.

10. Generation 3 since the first Tolman emigrated to Massachusetts in 1635; the first two generations are described in an essay on this website, vide supra.

11. Ibid.

12. Breck, Samuel Genealogy of the Breck Family: descended from Edward Breck or Dorchester (Omaha, NE: Rees Printing, 1889).

13. Tolman, Gerald Lee ‘The Descendants of Thomas Tolman (1608), 2006 edition, typescript; FHL: 929.273 T584t 2006 v.1 and online at FamilySearch.org; also online at thomas.tolmanfamily.org/gedcom-tree/ghtindex.htm hereafter TTFGC.

14. Frost, Josephine C. Ancestors of Benjamin Ferris Blakeney and his wife Stella Peronne Sabin (Brooklyn, New York: unknown, 1921), p. 77; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 7 Jan 2015).

15. Mower, Lyman The Ancestry of Calvin Robinson Mower (1840-1927) (Salem, MA: Higginson, 2004), pp. 610-625. (hereafter Mower)

16. The two foregoing references both provide evidence that Jemima was the daughter of John and Susanna (Breck) Tolman although TTFGC and ‘Tolman Genealogy…Compiled from materials furnished by members of the family’, [The New England Historical and Genealogical Register], vol. 14 (1860), pp. 247-260. (hereafter The Register) both have her as the daughter of Thomas2(Thomas1 ThomasA) and Experience Tolman. The key proof that Jemima was the daughter of John and not Thomas is the fact that John’s will (1757) states ‘I Give the Three Children of my Daughter Jamima Davenport Decd…’ (reproduced in its entirety in Mower, see p. 621).

17. Jemima Tollman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1631-1844; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 6 Jan 2015); also FamilySearch.org, Massachusetts Births and Christenings, 1639-1915, FHL Film 833,385.

18. Davenport/Tolman marriage: Massachusetts, Marriages, 1633-1850, FHL Film 0818093-0818095 (Lynn, Mass. Marriages); online at Ancestry.com (accessed 6 Jan 2015).

19. The children are Jemima and Charles; some list Thomas Davenport as a son also, but the only candidate from the record was born in 1720 before Charles and Jemima’s marriage and is therefore unlikely without other data.

20. ‘Shared Family Tree’, owner christe35, trees.ancestry.com/tree/18970568 (accessed 6 Jan 2015); and Charles Davenport children with wife Joannah at FamilySearch.org (accessed 7 Jan 2015).

21. Jerusha Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1631-1844; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 6 Jan 2015).

22. Jerusha Humfrey death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1631-1844; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 6 Jan 2015).

23. Humphrys/Tolman marriage: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1631-1844; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 6 Jan 2015).

24. Named in her father’s will ‘Daughter Jerusha Humfreys’, see Mower, p. 621.

25. TTFGC.

26. Susanna Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1631-1844; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 7 Jan 2015).

27. Mower, p. 623.

28. Not named in her father’s will (1757), see Mower, p. 621.

29. ‘Stratford/Newitt Family Tree’, owner Millie Hogoboom, trees.ancestry.com/tree/121354 (accessed 8 Jan 2015).

30. Marshall/Tolman marriage: IGI at FamilySearch.org/ark:/61903/2:1:N5C4-XBH and Ancestral File /ark:/61903/2:1:MW4F-W53 (accessed 7 Jan 2015).

31. ‘Stratford/Newitt Family Tree’, owner Millie Hogoboom, trees.ancestry.com/tree/121354 (accessed 8 Jan 2015) and references therein.

32. Ruth Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1631-1844; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 8 Jan 2015).

33. Mower, p. 623.

34. Not named in her father’s will (1757), see Mower, p. 621.

35. The only marriage for a Ruth Tolman in this time period is one to Isaac Jackson son of Samuel Jackson of Attleborough on 22 Aug 1753 or 5 at Attleborough, Bristol, Massachusetts [Jackson/Toleman marriage: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Attleborough marriages]. He was born 22 Jun 1729 at Attleboro, Bristol, Massachusetts and died 16 Jul 1796 at Troy, Cheshire, New Hampshire [online at Findagrave.com, memorial #63686590]. The record states she was also of Attleborough and is therefore likely the daughter of Henry and Mary (Slack) Tolman born 15 Jan 1738 [Ruth Tolman birth: IGI, at FamilySearch.org.]

36. Josiah Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1631-1844; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 8 Jan 2015).

37. Mower and references therein, p. 623.

38. Named in his father’s will ‘Son Josiah Tolman’, see Mower, p. 621.

39. Elijah Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1631-1844; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 8 Jan 2015).

40. Dorchester Births, Marriages, and Deaths to the end of 1825; cited in Mower, p. 623.

41. Tolman/Humphrey marriage: Massachusetts marriages, 1633-1850, FHL Film 740,996; online at Ancestry. com (accessed 8 Jan 2015).

42. Mower and references therein, p. 623.

43. The Register.p. 253.

44. Priscilla Bird death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1631-1844; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 8 Jan 2015).

45. Mower and references therein, p. 624.

46. Named in her father’s will ‘daughter Priscilla Bird’, see Mower, p. 621.

47. Mower and references therein, p. 624.

48. TTFGC.

49. Mower and references therein, p. 624.

50. Their first son Edward was born in 1743, cf. Mower, p. 624.

51. Named in her father’s will ‘daughter Patience Capen’, see Mower, p. 621.

52. Mower and references therein, p. 624.

53. Submit Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1631-1844; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 8 Jan 2015).

54. Submit Tolman death: Ibid.

55. Not named in her father’s will (1757), see Mower, p. 621.

56. Mercy Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1631-1844; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 8 Jan 2015).

57. Mercy Tolman death: Ibid.

58. The Register,p. 252.

59. Hannah Clap birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1684-1745; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 23 May 2015).

60. See also Clapp, Ebenezer Record of the Clapp Family in America (Boston, MA: David Clapp and Sons, 1876) p. 212; also has vitae for John Tolman.

61. Hannah Clap Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 23 May 2015).

62. TTFGC and The Register.p. 252-3.

63. Hannah Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

64. Hannah Pierce death: Town and City Clerks of Massachusetts, Vital and Town Records; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

65. Pierce/Tolman marriage: Massachusetts, Marriages, 1633-1850, FHL Film 0740,996; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

66. Edward Pierce death: Town and City Clerks of Massachusetts, Vital and Town Records; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

67. Pierce/Wiswell marriage: Massachusetts, Marriages, 1633-1850; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

68. Pierce/Foster marriage: Massachusetts, Marriages, 1633-1850; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

69. ‘Thomas25Oct2005 Family Tree’, owner marshall88, trees.ancestry.com/tree/69648054 (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

70. Ezekiel Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

71. Ezekiel Tolman death: New England Historic Genealogical Society, Bellingham vital records to 1850; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

72. Ezekiel Tolman, SAR membership 28673, Sons of the American Revolution Membership Application, 1889-1970; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan2015).

73. Tolman/Perry marriage: Roxbury Vital Records, 1630-1867, Film 741320; online at FamilySearch. com (accessed 8 Jan 2015). TTGFC has him married to Sarah Harrington Perry, no source– married before?; Ackerman, p. 25 has him married to ‘Sarah Harrington’, no source; not findable by the author.

74. Sarah Perry birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Roxbury Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 4 Jul 2015). There are several Sarah Perrys born abt 1740; most can be eliminated by calculating her birth year from her death date at age 80 and the assumption that she was born in Roxbury (as marriage record indicated).

75. Sarah Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 4 Jul 2015) and ‘Savage Family Tree’, owner: jillian_k_chaves, trees.ancestry.com/tree/62004199 (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

76. TTFGC and The Register.p. 252-3.

77. Jemima Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

78. Jemima Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

79. Ruth Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

80. Ruth Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

81. Susannah Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

82. SusannahTolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

83. Nathaniel Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

84. Hannah Hall Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 23 May 2015).

85. TTFGC and The Register,p. 254.

86. The Register,p. 254.

87. TTFGC and The Register,p. 254. TTFGC has two extra children (an Ezekiel, b. 1764 and a Ruth, b. 1766); no records are available to substantiate the existence of these children. They are also not included in The Register outline of the family. Additionally, Ezekial, b. Oct 1764, is a physical impossibility as this is only 5 mos before the birth of Hannah, b. Mar 1765 whose birth is substantiated by the record. There are records of the baptism of children by these names at the First Church of Dorchester, but these children (15 and 17 in this essay) belong to the family of John Tolman, Jr. (1700-1779) and his wife Hannah Clap Tolman.

88. Hannah Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 23 May 2015).

89. Hannah Preston death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 8 Jun 2015).

90. The Register, p. 254.

91. Ackerman, Herbert S. Thomas Tolman (Ridgewood, New Jersey: Ackerman, 1953), p. 38; hereafter Ackerman. He also proposes Hannah to have married (2) Charles Turner of Scituate—there is no viable evidence for this; Charles Turner’s 2nd wife (21 Sep 1789) was Hannah Jacob of Scituate (Massachusetts Town Marriages, online at Ancestry.com (accessed 8 Jun 2015).

92. John Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 27 May 2015).

93. The Register, p. 254.

94. Ann Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 27 May 2015).

95. Ackerman, p. 38.

96. Jemima Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 27 May 2015).

97. Jemima Glover death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Boston Deaths1854; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 27 May 2015).

98. The Register, p. 254.

99. Stephen Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 27 May 2015). There were actually 3 Stephen Tolmans born 1777-1778, two in Dorchester and one in Scituate. The two Dorchester Stephens are often confused (cf. TTGFC and Ackerman). The ‘other’ Dorchester Stephen Tolman was born 14 Feb 1778 and died 8 Nov 1842, but not in Dorchester but in Winchendon, Worcester County (see Findagrave #121069144); he married Deborah Greenwood of Winchendon. His parents Desire and Sarah (Howe) Tolman moved from Dorchester to Winchenden abt 1789 (from children’s birthplaces). The war record from the War of 1812 belongs to the Dorchester Stephen (25), as naval history indicates he was a member of a Dorchester company and not a Winchenden company (Naval History, War of 1812 (Proceedings of the Bostonian Society: Boston, 1899); online at books.google.com (accessed 8 Jun 2015).

100. Stephen Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Deaths, 1850-1869; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 27 May 2015). The entry (no. 22) indicates (1) he was 87y,7m,18d at his death (agrees with his b’date) and (2) that he was a son of John and Hannah (Hall) Tolman. Further proof that he did not die in 1842 comes from the record of him, his wife Mary and two of their daughters in the 1850 census of Dorchester, Norfolk, Massachusetts, Roll M432_329, Page 69B; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 8 Jun 2015).

101. The Register, p. 254.

102. Naval History, War of 1812 (Proceedings of the Bostonian Society: Boston, 1899); online at books.google.com (accessed 8 Jun 2015).

103. Ackerman, p. 39 and The Register, p. 254.

104. Eunice Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 27 May 2015).

105. TTFGC; author has not been able to confirm death date.

106. The Register, p. 254.

107. Elisha Tolman birth: Dorchester Births, Marriages, and Deaths to the end of 1825 (Boston, Mass.: Rockwell and Churchill Printers, 1890) p. 177 (at NEHGS).

108. Elisha Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Dorchester Births, Marriages, Deaths, 1745-1825, widower, lists his parents and birthplace; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 27 May 2015).

109. The Register, p. 254.

110. Tolman/Pike marriage: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988; Roxbury births, marriages, deaths, online at Ancestry.com (accessed 23 May 2015).

111. Lucretia Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988; Concord Mass Births, Marriages, Deaths 1635-1850; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 21 May 2015).

112. Vital Records of Concord, MA (NEHGS Book) and ‘Anthony/Whitney Family Tree’, owner xchanius, trees.ancestry.com/tree/14947666 (accessed 20 May2015).

113. Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~silversmiths/makers.silvermiths/217740-.htm.

114. Nabby Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988; Concord Mass Births, Marriages, Deaths 1635-1850; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 21 May 2015).

115. Elisha Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988; Lincoln births, marriages, deaths, online at Ancestry.com (accessed 23 May 2015).

116. TTGFC and Tolman/Mayo marriage: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988; Roxbury births, marriages, deaths, online at Ancestry.com (accessed 23 May 2015).

117. Henrietta H. Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Concord deaths, lists parents; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015).

118. Lucretia Pike Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988; Lincoln births, marriages, deaths, online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015).

119. Lucretia Pike Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Lincoln deaths; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015).

120. Lucretia Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988; Lincoln births, marriages, deaths, online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015).

121. Lucretia Bascomb death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Concord Vital Record Transcripts; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015).

122. Bascomb/Tolman marriage: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988; Concord Vital Record Transcripts, online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015). Note: other reports exist which are incorrect—there is a report of a Lucretia born 1810, but this is a corruption of the 1800 Lucretia birth (no actual 1810 record exists); there is also a claim that Lucretia married Miles Cobb, but this was Lucretia TOTMAN, cf. TTFGC.

123. Obituary, Worcester Daily Telegram, October 22, 1891 (transcription www.genealogy.com /forum/surnames,topics/tolman/148)

124. Albert Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Massachusetts Death Records 1841-1915; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015).

125. Tolman/Hunstable marriage, Massachusetts Marriages 1673-1850; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015).

126. Whiting/Hunstable marriage, Massachusetts Marriages 1673-1850; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015).

127. Susannah Russell Whiting birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988; Charlestown Archives, Part 1 (1800-1843); online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015).

128. Tolman/Flagg marriage: Massachusetts Marriages 1673-1850; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015).

129. TTFGC.

130. Abigail Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Concord Vital Record Transcripts; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015).

131. Abby Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Concord Vital Record Transcripts; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015).

132. Benjamin Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Concord Vital Record Transcripts; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015).

133. Tolman/Bigelow marriage: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Concord, Mass births, deaths, and marriages, FHL Film 0823762 item 1; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 22 May 2015) and TTFGC.

134. James Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988; Concord Mass Births, Marriages, Deaths 1635-1850; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 21 May 2015).

135. TTFGC has his death in 1838, but he was still alive in 1850; 1850 U. S. Census of Roxbury, Norfolk, Massachusetts, Roll M432_330, Page 173A and not alive in 1870 (1870 U. S. Census of Boston Ward 10, Suffolk, Massachusetts, Roll M593_646, Page 397B, FHL Film 552145); online at Ancestry.com (accessed 21 May 2015).

136. James Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015) and ‘Anthony/Whitney Family Tree’, owner xchanius, trees.ancestry.com/tree/14947666 (accessed 20 May2015).

137. James Tolman Will, probated 10 Apr 1869 no. 31860, Suffolk County Massachusetts Wills at NEHGS.

138. Thwing, Walter Eliot ‘Pew Owners’ History of the First Church of Roxbury (1630-1904) (Boston: W. A. Butterfield, 1908) p. 331; James Tolman and Elizabeth Metcalf Smith w/vitals, FHL Book online (accessed 20 May 2015).

139. Tolman/Smith marriage: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Boston (recorded by city in Nov 1844); online at Ancestry.com (accessed 21 May 2015).

140. ‘Anthony/Whitney Family Tree’, owner xchanius, trees.ancestry.com/tree/14947666 (accessed 20 May 2015).

141. The Battelle-Durant-Draper genealogy (the maternal forebears of Elizabeth Metcalf Smith) is described in Durant, William and Alexander G. Rose The Durant Genealogy Vol I (Baltimore, MD: Privately printed, 1966) p. 56 mentions ‘a grand-dau Elizabeth M. Smith Tolman’, custodian of a Gilbert Stuart portrait of Anna Durant Battelle currently in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, a gift of Harriet Smith Tolman, dau of Elizabeth M. Smith Tolman (pic online at mfa.org/collections); book at NEHGS (CS71 D95 1966); also Vol II of the same work cites detailed genealogy naming children and grandchildren of Anna Durant Battelle, pp. 40-43, 48.

142. The name ‘Metcalf’ in Elizabeth’s name derives from her paternal grandmother; the genealogy of her father Michael Smith, son of Henry and Elizabeth (Metcalf) Smith of Dedham, Norfolk, Massachusetts appears in ‘Metcalf Family’ The Register, Vol. 6 (1852), pp. 171-177 and Metcalfe, Howard Hurtig Some Descendants of Rev. Leonard Metcalf (Bowie, Md: Heritage Books, 2002) pp. 171 (NEHGS CS71 M588 2002).

143. Durant, William and Alexander G. Rose The Durant Genealogy Vol II (Baltimore, MD: Privately printed, 1966) p. 43.

144. Obits, Boston Evening Transcript, January 1, 1891, p. 4 (NEHGS Film) and 1880 U. S. Census of Boston, Suffolk, Massachusetts, Roll 558, Page 37A,FHL Film 1254558; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 20 May 2015).

145. 1870 U. S. Census of Boston Ward 10, Suffolk, Massachusetts, Roll M593_646, Page 398A, FHL Film 552,145; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 20 May 2015).

146. 1855 and 1865 Massachusetts State Census, databases on line at Ancestry.com (accessed 20 May 2015).

147. A James S. Tolman (b. Oct 1847, d. Jul 1848 at 8/12mo in Boston) is reported to be son of ‘James P. Tolman’ although such a family-head cannot be found by the author in the 1810-1830 birthdate range. This child James cannot be a member of the James Tolman/Elizabeth Metcalf Smith family as his birth is too close to the birth of James Pike Tolman in 1847. The family makeup is clearly shown in the various censuses (particularly the Mass 1865 census vide supra) and confirms the family as here constituted [James S. Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Boston, parent James P. Tolman; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 21 May 2015)].

148. U. S. Passport Application, NARA, Washington, D. C. Roll 244: 01 Oct 1881-31 Dec 1881;online at Ancestry.com (accessed 21 May 2015).

149. 1910 U. S. Census of Boston Ward 10, Suffolk, Massachusetts, Roll T624_617, Page 11B, E. D. 1407, FHL Film 1374630 and 1920 U. S. Census of Boston Ward 7, Suffolk, Massachusetts, Roll T625_732, Page 11A, E. D. 199.

150. Abby Tolman birth: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988, Roxbury Births; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

151. Abby Tolman death: Massachusetts, Town and Vital Records, 1620-1988; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 9 Jan 2015).

152. Massachusetts Deaths, 1841-1915, online at FamilySearch (accessed 3 Jul 2015), names parents; and ‘Anthony/Whitney Family Tree’, owner xchanius, trees.ancestry.com/tree/14947666 (accessed 20 May2015).

153. ‘Buffum Family 2’, owner echodx, trees.ancestry.com/tree/28206277 (accessed 20 May 2015) and ‘My Road Back…’, owner BrendaCharles603, trees.ancestry.com/tree/48084 (accessed 20 May2015).

154. James P. Tolman, U. S. Passport Application, 1905; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 20 May 2015).

155. Tolman/Chace marriage: Vital Records of Rhode Island 1853-1900, online at FamilySearch, Film 1822995 (accessed June 2014) and ‘Buffum Family 4’, owner echodx, trees.ancestry.com/tree/71424816 (accessed 10 Jun 2015).

156. 1880 U. S. Census of Newton, Middlesex, Massachusetts, Roll 546, FHL Film 1254546, Page 80B, E. D. 475; James and Mary with 4 yr. old Elizabeth C. Cheney and 1900 U. S. Census of Newton Ward 3, Middlesex, Massachusetts, Roll 664, Page 22A, E. D. 0899, FHL Film 1240,664; James and Mary with 2 sons and Elizabeth C. Carter; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 10 Jun 2015).

157. Cheney/Chace marriage: Vital Records of Rhode Island 1853-1900, online at FamilySearch, Film 1822993 (accessed June 2014) and ‘Buffum Family 4’, owner echodx, trees.ancestry.com/tree/71424816 (accessed 10 Jun 2015).

158. Rhode Island Deaths, online at FamilySearch, Film 1822993 (accessed June 2014); and Ingram, Krista ‘Re: James Tolman Family’, online at www.genealogy.com/forum/surnames/topics/tolman/226 (accessed 9 Jun 2015); and ‘BFA09’, owner GailNoland1942, trees.ancestry.com/tree/46460535 (accessed 20 May2015).

159. Mary (Chace) Tolman death: Massachusetts Death Index, V.54, p. 127 (Index V. no. 87); online at Ancestry.com (accessed 20 May 2015).

160. Perkins, Owen A. Buffum Family, Volume II (Ft. Worth, Texas: Miran Publishers, 1975), p. 234.

161. Ingram, Krista ‘Re: James Tolman Family’, online at www.genealogy.com/forum/surnames/topics/tolman/226 and see also the interesting biographical notes: Elizabeth C. Stevens, ‘Elizabeth Buffum Chace and Lillie Chace Wyman’ (daughter) online at www.quahog.org/factsfolklore/index.php (accessed 9 Jun 2015).

162. Chamberlin, George Walter and John Carroll Chase Some of the Descendants of William Chase of Roxbury and Yarmouth, Mass. (Holyoke, Mass.: Hazen P. Chase, 1983), p. 340 and ‘Varacalli/Gervasi Family Tree’, owner dmcanale, trees.ancestry.com/tree/24129506 (accessed 22 May2015).

163. ‘BFA09’, owner GailNoland1942, trees.ancestry.com/tree/46460535 (accessed 20 May 2015).

164. Edward Chace Tolman Death, California Death Index 1940-1997, online at Ancestry.com (accessed 20 May 2015).

165. Edward Chace Tolman burial, Find A Grave Index, online at Ancestry.com (accessed 20 May 2015).

166. Ritchie, Benbow F ‘Edward Chace Tolman’ Biographical Memoirs National Academy of Sciences, Vol. XXVII (Washington, D. C.: Nat’l Academy of Science, 1952) pp.293-324 and Edward C. Tolman biography: online at http://faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/psyography/edwardtolman.html and http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history.tolman.html.

167. Ibid.

168. Tolman/Drew marriage: Massachusetts Marriage Index 1901-1955, database online at Ancestry.com (accessed 20 May 2015); names parents.

169. ‘BFA09’, owner GailNoland1942, trees.ancestry.com/tree/46460535 (accessed 20 May 2015).

170. 1930 U. S. Census of Berkeley, Alameda, California, Roll 111, Page 9B, E. D. 0320, FHL Film 2339846; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 20 May 2015).

171. Richard C. Tolman birth: Massachusetts Vital Records, 1841-1910; online at NewEnglandAncestors.org (accessed 20 Oct 2005).

172. California Death Index 1940-1997, online at Ancestry.com (accessed 26 Oct 2006).

173. Tolman/Sherman marriage: California, Marriage Records from Select counties, 1850-1941, database online at Ancestry.com (accessed 21 May 2015).

174. 1910 U. S. Census of Sacramento Ward 7, Sacramento, California, Roll T624_93, Page 14A, E. D. 0122, FHL Film 137106; online at Ancestry.com (accessed 20 May 2015).

175. Indiana Births, 1880-1920, database online at Ancestry.com (accessed 21 May 2015).

176. Ruth Sherman Tolman death: California Death Index, 1940-1997, online at Ancestry.com (accessed 21 May 2015).

177. Bird, Kai and Sherman, Martin I American Prometheus (New York: Vintage Books, 2005), pp.363-365; a biography of J. Robert Oppenheimer; winner of the Pulitzer Prize (hereafter Bird).

178. Ibid.

179. Bird and many others.

180. Streshinsky, Shirley and Patricia Klaus An Atomic Love Story (New York: Turner Publishing Co., 2013) many mentions of Ruth and ‘Oppie’ and their affair with lots of detail.

181. Bird, pp. 364-5.

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